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Nourani M.R.,Chemical Injuries Research Center | Azimzadeh S.,Chemical Injuries Research Center | Ghanei M.,Chemical Injuries Research Center | Imani Fooladi A.A.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University
Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction | Year: 2014

Context: Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent identified as a potent chemical warfare agent. More recently, SM was used in the Iraq conflict against Iranian troops and civilians. At present, there are many people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to mustard gas in Iran. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The oxidant/antioxidant imbalance present in the lungs of these patients also results from the impaired capacity of the antioxidant/detoxification enzymes to detoxify the harmful reactive oxygen metabolites. Objective: One of the major antioxidants in human airways is glutathione S-transferase. They facilitate the detoxification of various environmental of oxidative stress. In this study, we attempted to understand the significance different in expression of GSTs in airway wall of chemical patients and control. Materials and methods: Seven normal and 20 SM induced COPD individuals were studied. Bronchoscopy was performed in all subjects and two specimens were taken from the main bronchus for mRNA extraction, PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: SM-induced COPD individuals showed expression of GSTA1 2.51 ± 0.83-, GSTM1 2.84 ± 1.71- and GSTP1 5.61 ± 2.59-folds higher than those of controls that revealed. GSTP1-immunoreactivity was strongly expressed in luminal border of normal samples. SM patient samples immunoreactivity for GSTP1 in the same area were negative. Discussion and conclusion: According to these findings, we speculated that overexpression of GSTs mRNA in patients revealed that GSTs plays an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress of MS in airway wall of patients. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Rezaei-Zarchi S.,University of Yazd | Negahdary M.,University of Tehran | Doroudian M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Hashemi M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | And 4 more authors.
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

Convergence of biotechnology and nanotechnology, nanomaterial's are creating hybrids that produce and characterize bio-materials are selective catalysts. Combination of bimolecular with Nano-materials in Nanobiotechnology is a fascinating field. In many research centers, designing inorganic nanoparticles that the structure of the physical, chemical, biological and behavioral characteristics, in particular, It has a lot of attention. In this research project, direct electron transfer of myoglobin, immobilized on a nickel oxide nanoparticles modified graphite electrode, was studied. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and TEM electron microscopes. The resulting electrode displayed an excellent redox behavior for the myoglobin. The myoglobin showed a quasi-reversible electrochemical redox behavior with a formal potential of -48±5 mV (versus Ag/AgCl) in 0/05 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 and temperature 25°C. The cathodic transfer coefficient was 0.45 and electron transfer rate constant was evaluated to be 1.98 s -1.The modified electrode as a biosensor, good sensitivity to H 2O 2, showed. The linear range of this biosensor for H 2O 2 determination was from 15 to 650 μM while standard deviation in 40 μM H 2O 2 concentration was 2.8% for 4 repetitions, and the detection limit was 7 μM.

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