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Winneke G.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Ranft U.,IUF LeibnizResearch Institute of Environmental Medicine | Wittsiepe J.,Ruhr University Bochum | Kasper-Sonnenberg M.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2014

Background: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have been characterized as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Objectives: Within the Duisburg birth cohort study, we studied associations of prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs with parent-reported sexually dimorphic behavior in children. Methods: We measured lipid-based and WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents established in 2005 by the World Health Organization)-standardized PCDD/Fs and PCBs in maternal blood samples and in early breast milk using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. At the child's age of 6-8 years, parents (mostly mothers) reported sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI), which was used to derive feminine, masculine, and difference (feminine - masculine) scores. We estimated exposure-outcome associations using multivariate linear regression. A total of 91-109 children were included in this follow-up. Results: Mean blood levels of summed WHO2005 -TEQ-standardized dioxins (ΣPCDD/Fs) were 14.5 ± 6.4 pg/g blood lipids, and ΣPCBs were 6.9 ± 3.8 pg/g blood lipids, with similar values for milk lipids. Regression analyses revealed some highly significant interactions between sex and exposure- such as for ΣPCBs in milk, pronounced positive (boys: β = 3.24; CI = 1.35, 5.14) or negative (girls: β = -3.59; CI = -1.10, -6.08) associations with reported femininity. Less pronounced and mostly insignificant but consistent associations were found for the masculinity score, positive for boys and negative for girls. Conclusions: Given our results and the findings of previous studies, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence that these EDCs modify behavioral sexual dimorphism in children, presumably by interacting with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Source

Habermeyer M.,University of Kaiserslautern | Roth A.,University of Kaiserslautern | Guth S.,University of Kaiserslautern | Diel P.,German Sport University Cologne | And 18 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2015

Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Moreover, dietary nitrate has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with gastric ulcer, renal failure, or metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicate that such beneficial health effects due to dietary nitrate may be achievable at intake levels resulting from the daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables. N-nitroso compounds are endogenously formed in humans. However, their relevance for human health has not been adequately explored up to now. Nitrate and nitrite are per se not carcinogenic, but under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation, it cannot be excluded that ingested nitrate and nitrite may lead to an increased cancer risk and may probably be carcinogenic to humans. In this review, the known beneficial and detrimental health effects related to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are described and the identified gaps in knowledge as well as the research needs required to perform a reliable benefit/risk assessment in terms of long-term human health consequences due to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Bernsmann T.,Chemical and Veterinary Analytical Institute Munsterland Emscher Lippe | Furst P.,Chemical and Veterinary Analytical Institute Munsterland Emscher Lippe | Godula M.,Thermo Fisher Scientific
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

This paper describes a method for the determination of priority β-agonists in urine based on a fully automated sample preparation procedure using an online TurboFlow™ chromatography clean-up step and determination with Orbitrap™ mass analyser technology. The principle of the method was the enrichment of the β-agonists after enzymatic hydrolysis overnight on a small column packed with a special stationary phase (TurboFlow™) while flushing away sample matrix and interfering compounds. Thereafter, the analytes were transferred onto an analytical column and detected by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry in full-scan mode at a resolution of R = 50,000 FWHM (full width at half maximum) and in higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) scan mode at a resolving power of 10,000 FWHM. The optimisation of each step of the method, such as selection of the TurboFlow™ and analytical column as well as sample loading and elution parameters were performed using a standard solution containing salbutamol, clenbuterol and mabuterol at a concentration of 100 μg l-1. The developed automated sample preparation significantly improved the throughput and efficiency of the previously used screening method and it resulted in a considerable reduction in analysis time. Validation experiments including 24 β-agonists in urine gave decision limits (CCα) between 0.05 and 0.35 μg l-1. The repeatability of analyses for urine samples spiked at 0.5 μg l-1 was within the range of 5-26% and recoveries for all compounds were within 89-107%. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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