Alexandria, VA, United States
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Layshock J.A.,Battelle | Pearson B.,Cubic Inc | Crockett K.,Chemical Biological Analysis Center | Brown M.J.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism | Year: 2012

Reaerosolization or resuspension-that is, the reintroduction of previously airborne particles into the atmosphere-is a complex phenomenon. Microbial reaerosolization is particularly poorly understood because few studies have been done in this area, and many of the studies that have been performed are not in the peer-reviewed literature. The reaerosolization of Bacillus anthracis in outdoor environments is of particular concern because of its stability and potential for use as a biological weapon. This review pulls together data from more than 30 publications, spanning field and laboratory experiments, to summarize the current state of our understanding of Bacillus spp. reaerosolization in outdoor environments. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Crockett K.,Chemical Biological Analysis Center
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism | Year: 2011

Following the terrorist attacks in 2001, much time and effort has been put toward improving catastrophic incident response. But recovery-the period following initial response that focuses on the long-term viability of the affected area-has received less attention. Recognizing the importance of being able to recover an area following a catastrophic incident, the Department of Defense, through its Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Department of Homeland Security, through its Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), created the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program. IBRD was a 4-year program jointly managed and funded by DTRA and DHS S&T, the goal of which was to reduce the time and resources necessary to recover a wide urban area from an intentional release of Bacillus anthracis. Specific program objectives included understanding the social, economic, and operational interdependencies that affect recovery; establishing long-term coordination between the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security; developing strategic recovery/restoration plans; identifying and demonstrating technologies that support recovery; and exercising recovery activities and technology solutions. IBRD has made important first steps toward improving national preparedness in the area biological incident recovery. Specifically, IBRD has helped enhance the efficacy and efficiency of recovering large urban areas by developing consequence management guidance; identifying key S&T capabilities and integrating them with planning and guidance documents; and establishing key relationships across the federal interagency, federal-to-regional, civilian-to-military, and public-to-private stakeholders. Upon completion of IBRD in fall 2010, both DTRA and DHS S&T planned follow-on programs. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Chemical Biological Analysis Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biosecurity and bioterrorism : biodefense strategy, practice, and science | Year: 2011

Following the terrorist attacks in 2001, much time and effort has been put toward improving catastrophic incident response. But recovery--the period following initial response that focuses on the long-term viability of the affected area--has received less attention. Recognizing the importance of being able to recover an area following a catastrophic incident, the Department of Defense, through its Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Department of Homeland Security, through its Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), created the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program. IBRD was a 4-year program jointly managed and funded by DTRA and DHS S&T, the goal of which was to reduce the time and resources necessary to recover a wide urban area from an intentional release of Bacillus anthracis. Specific program objectives included understanding the social, economic, and operational interdependencies that affect recovery; establishing long-term coordination between the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security; developing strategic recovery/restoration plans; identifying and demonstrating technologies that support recovery; and exercising recovery activities and technology solutions. IBRD has made important first steps toward improving national preparedness in the area biological incident recovery. Specifically, IBRD has helped enhance the efficacy and efficiency of recovering large urban areas by developing consequence management guidance; identifying key S&T capabilities and integrating them with planning and guidance documents; and establishing key relationships across the federal interagency, federal-to-regional, civilian-to-military, and public-to-private stakeholders. Upon completion of IBRD in fall 2010, both DTRA and DHS S&T planned follow-on programs.

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