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Archerfield, Australia

Veldman A.,Monash Institute of Medical Research | Santamaria-Araujo J.A.,University of Cologne | Sollazzo S.,University of Cologne | Pitt J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by severe and rapidly progressive neurologic damage caused by the functional loss of sulfite oxidase, 1 of 4 molybdenum-dependent enzymes. To date, no effective therapy is available for MoCD, and death in early infancy has been the usual outcome. We report here the case of a patient who was diagnosed with MoCD at the age of 6 days. Substitution therapy with purified cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) was started on day 36 by daily intravenous administration of 80 to 160 μg of cPMP/kg of body weight. Within 1 to 2 weeks, all urinary markers of sulfite oxidase (sulfite, S-sulfocysteine, thiosulfate) and xanthine oxidase deficiency (xanthine, uric acid) returned to almost normal readings and stayed constant (>450 days of treatment). Clinically, the infant became more alert, convulsions and twitching disappeared within the first 2 weeks, and an electroencephalogram showed the return of rhythmic elements and markedly reduced epileptiform discharges. Substitution of cPMP represents the first causative therapy available for patients with MoCD. We demonstrate efficient uptake of cPMP and restoration of molybdenum cofactor-dependent enzyme activities. Further neurodegeneration by toxic metabolites was stopped in the reported patient. We also demonstrated the feasibility to detect MoCD in newborn-screening cards to enable early diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Stewart I.,Chemical Analysis | Stewart I.,Griffith University | Lewis R.J.,University of Queensland | Eaglesham G.K.,Chemical Analysis | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology | Year: 2010

Ciguatera poisoning is a food-borne neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of finfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. Ciguatera is a distressing and sometimes disabling condition that presents with a self-limiting though occasionally severe gastro-intestinal illness, progressing to a suite of aberrant sensory symptoms. Recovery can take from days to years; second and subsequent attacks may manifest in a more severe illness. Ciguatera remains largely a pan-tropical disease, although tourism and export fish markets facilitate increased presentation in temperate latitudes. While ciguatera poisoning in the South Pacific was recognised and eloquently described by seafarers in the 18th Century, it remains a public-health challenge in the 21st Century because there is neither a confirmatory diagnostic test nor a reliable, low-cost screening method to ascertain the safety of suspect fish prior to consumption. A specific antidote is not available, so treatment is largely supportive. The most promising pharmacotherapy of recent decades, intravenous mannitol, has experienced a relative decline in acceptance after a randomized, double-blind trial failed to confirm its efficacy. Some questions remain unanswered, however, and the use of mannitol for the treatment of acute ciguatera poisoning arguably deserves revisiting. The immunotoxicology of ciguatera is poorly understood, and some aspects of the epidemiology and symptomatology of ciguatera warrant further enquiry. © 2010 Maney Publishing. Source

Hughes J.,Queensland University of Technology | Ayoko G.,Queensland University of Technology | Collett S.,Chemical Analysis | Golding G.,Chemical Analysis
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

In Australia and increasingly worldwide, methamphetamine is one of the most commonly seized drugs analysed by forensic chemists. The current well-established GC/MS methods used to identify and quantify methamphetamine are lengthy, expensive processes, but often rapid analysis is requested by undercover police leading to an interest in developing this new analytical technique. Ninety six illicit drug seizures containing methamphetamine (0.1%-78.6%) were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with an Attenuated Total Reflectance attachment and Chemometrics. Two Partial Least Squares models were developed, one using the principal Infrared Spectroscopy peaks of methamphetamine and the other a Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model. Both of these models were refined to choose the variables that were most closely associated with the methamphetamine % vector. Both of the models were excellent, with the principal peaks in the Partial Least Squares model having Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 3.8, R2 0.9779 and lower limit of quantification 7% methamphetamine. The Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model had lower limit of quantification 0.3% methamphetamine, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 5.2 and R2 0.9637. Such models offer rapid and effective methods for screening illicit drug samples to determine the percentage of methamphetamine they contain. © 2013 Hughes et al. Source

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