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Andrade C.H.,Federal University of Goais | Andrade C.H.,University of New Mexico | Pasqualoto K.F.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Ferreira E.I.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2010

Drug design is a process driven by innovation and technological breakthroughs involving a combination of advanced experimental and computational methods. A broad variety of medicinal chemistry approaches can be used for the identification of hits, generation of leads, as well as to accelerate the optimization of leads into drug candidates. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) formalisms are among the most important strategies that can be applied for the successful design new molecules. This review provides a comprehensive review on the evolution and current status of 4D-QSAR, highlighting present challenges and new opportunities in drug design. © 2010 by the authors. Source

Chen Z.,Indiana University Bloomington | Huang H.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Liu J.,Chem21 Group Inc. | Tony Ng H.K.,Southern Methodist University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medical Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: It is well known that DNA methylation, as an epigenetic factor, has an important effect on gene expression and disease development. Detecting differentially methylated loci under different conditions, such as cancer types or treatments, is of great interest in current research as it is important in cancer diagnosis and classification. However, inappropriate testing approaches can result in large false positives and/or false negatives. Appropriate and powerful statistical methods are desirable but very limited in the literature. Results: In this paper, we propose a nonparametric method to detect differentially methylated loci under multiple conditions for Illumina Array Methylation data. We compare the new method with other methods using simulated and real data. Our study shows that the proposed one outperforms other methods considered in this paper. Conclusions: Due to the unique feature of the Illumina Array Methylation data, commonly used statistical tests will lose power or give misleading results. Therefore, appropriate statistical methods are crucial for this type of data. Powerful statistical approaches remain to be developed. Availability. R codes are available upon request. © 2013 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Su B.-H.,National Taiwan University | Slien M.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Esposito E.X.,32 University Drive | Esposito E.X.,Chem21 Group Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2010

Blockage of the human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium ion channel is a major factor related to cardiotoxicity. Hence, drugs binding to this channel have become an important biological end point in side effects screening. A set of 250 structurally diverse compounds screened for hERG activity from the literature was assembled using a set of reliability filters. This data set was used to construct a set of two- state hERG QSAR models. The descriptor pool used to construct the models consisted of 4D-fingerprints generated from the thermodynamic distribution of conformer states available to a molecule, 204 traditional 2D descriptors and 76 3D VolSurf-like descriptors computed using the Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software. One model is a continuous partial least-squares (PLS) QSAR hERG binding model. Another related model is an optimized binary classification QSAR model that classifies compounds as active or inactive. This binary model achieves 91% accuracy over a large range of molecular diversity spanning the training set. Two external test sets were constructed. One test set is the condensed PubChem bioassay database containing 876 compounds, and the other test set consists of 106 additional compounds found in the literature. Both of the test sets were used to validate the binary QSAR model. The binary QSAR model permits a structural interpretation of possible sources for hERG activity. In particular, the presence of a polar negative group at a distance of 6-8 A from a hydrogen bond donor in a compound is predicted to be a quite structure- specific pharmacophore that increases hERG blockage. Since a data set of high chemical diversity was used to construct the binary model, it is applicable for performing general virtual hERG screening. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Tseng Y.J.,National Taiwan University | Hopfinger A.J.,University of New Mexico | Hopfinger A.J.,Chem21 Group Inc. | Esposito E.X.,Chem21 Group Inc. | Esposito E.X.,32 University Drive
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design | Year: 2012

The usefulness and utility of QSAR modeling depends heavily on the ability to estimate the values of molecular descriptors relevant to the endpoints of interest followed by an optimized selection of descriptors to form the best QSAR models from a representative set of the endpoints of interest. The performance of a QSAR model is directly related to its molecular descriptors. QSAR modeling, specifically model construction and optimization, has benefited from its ability to borrow from other unrelated fields, yet the molecular descriptors that form QSAR models have remained basically unchanged in both form and preferred usage. There are many types of endpoints that require multiple classes of descriptors (descriptors that encode 1D through multi-dimensional, 4D and above, content) needed to most fully capture the molecular features and interactions that contribute to the endpoint. The advantages of QSAR models constructed from multiple, and different, descriptor classes have been demonstrated in the exploration of markedly different, and principally biological systems and endpoints. Multiple examples of such QSAR applications using different descriptor sets are described and that examined. The take-home-message is that a major part of the future of QSAR analysis, and its application to modeling biological potency, ADME-Tox properties, general use in virtual screening applications, as well as its expanding use into new fields for building QSPR models, lies in developing strategies that combine and use 1D through nD molecular descriptors. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Shao C.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Chen S.-Z.,National Taiwan University | Su B.-H.,National Taiwan University | Tseng Y.J.,National Taiwan University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2013

Little attention has been given to the selection of trial descriptor sets when designing a QSAR analysis even though a great number of descriptor classes, and often a greater number of descriptors within a given class, are now available. This paper reports an effort to explore interrelationships between QSAR models and descriptor sets. Zhou and co-workers (Zhou et al., Nano Lett.2008, 8 (3), 859-865) designed, synthesized, and tested a combinatorial library of 80 surface modified, that is decorated, multi-walled carbon nanotubes for their composite nanotoxicity using six endpoints all based on a common 0 to 100 activity scale. Each of the six endpoints for the 29 most nanotoxic decorated nanotubes were incorporated as the training set for this study. The study reported here includes trial descriptor sets for all possible combinations of MOE, VolSurf, and 4D-fingerprints (FP) descriptor classes, as well as including and excluding explicit spatial contributions from the nanotube. Optimized QSAR models were constructed from these multiple trial descriptor sets. It was found that (a) both the form and quality of the best QSAR models for each of the endpoints are distinct and (b) some endpoints are quite dependent upon 4D-FP descriptors of the entire nanotube-decorator complex. However, other endpoints yielded equally good models only using decorator descriptors with and without the decorator-only 4D-FP descriptors. Lastly, and most importantly, the quality, significance, and interpretation of a QSAR model were found to be critically dependent on the trial descriptor sets used within a given QSAR endpoint study. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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