Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009.1.2.1.2 | Award Amount: 4.72M | Year: 2010
One of the most dramatic and immediate impacts of climate variation is that on disease, especially the vector-borne diseases that disproportionally affect the poorest people in Africa. Although we can clearly see that, for example, an El Nino event triggers Rift Valley Fever epidemics, we remain poor at understanding why particular areas are vulnerable and how this will change in coming decades, since climate change is likely to cause entirely new global disease distributions. This applies to most vector borne disease. At the same time, we do not know currently the limit of predictability of the specific climate drivers for vector-borne disease using state-of-the-art seasonal forecast models, and how best to use these to produce skilful infection-rate predictions on seasonal timescales. The QWeCI project thus aims to understand at a more fundamental level the climate drivers of the vector-borne diseases of malaria, Rift Valley Fever, and certain tick-borne diseases, which all have major human and livestock health and economic implications in Africa, in order to assist with their short-term management and make projections of their future likely impacts. QWeCI will develop and test the methods and technology required for an integrated decision support framework for health impacts of climate and weather. Uniquely, QWeCl will bring together the best in world integrated weather/climate forecasting systems with heath impacts modelling and climate change research groups in order to build an end-to-end seamless integration of climate and weather information for the quantification and prediction of climate and weather on health impacts in Africa.
Sarr R.,Cheikh Anta Diop University
Revue de Micropaleontologie | Year: 2015
This work summarizes biostratigraphic and paleogeographic data on Paleocene ostracods from the Senegalese-Mauritanian, West African and North African basins. In the Senegalese-Mauritanian basin, late Paleocene ostracods of high diversity suffered a mass extinction in the early Eocene. Comparison between Senegalese fauna. s and others of the Gulf of Guinea, Sahara and North African basins shows great similarities, with 10 common species identified: Bairdia ilaroensis Reyment and Reyment, Buntonia apatayeriyerii Reyment, B. fortunata Apostolescu, B. tichittensis Apostolescu, Cytherella sylvesterbradleyi Reyment, Dahomeya alata Apostolescu, Isohabrocythere teiskotensis Apostolescu, Phalcocythere vesiculosa (Apostolescu) Quadracythere lagaghiroboensis (Apostolescu) and Trachyleberis teiskotensis (Apostolescu). I. teiskotensis and P. vesiculosa are restricted to the upper Paleocene and are good stratigraphic markers for these basins. Faunal exchanges between West African, trans-Saharan and North African basins are highlighted. The directions of migration of some species are specified. Many West African species migrated to North Africa at the end of the Paleocene-Early Eocene. Migrations are related to climatic and paleobathymetric changes of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) that occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene transition. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Badiane F.A.,Cheikh Anta Diop University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012
Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 22 local cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties and inbred lines collected throughout Senegal were evaluated using simple sequence repeat molecular markers. A set of 49 primer combinations were developed from cowpea genomic/expressed sequence tags and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms among the various cowpea genotypes. Forty-four primer combinations detected polymorphisms, with the remaining five primer sets failing to yield PCR amplification products. From one to 16 alleles were found among the informative primer combinations; their frequencies ranged from 0.60 to 0.95 (mean = 0.79). The genetic diversity of the sample varied from 0.08 to 0.42 (mean = 0.28). The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.33 (mean = 0.23). The local varieties clustered in the same group, except 53-3, 58-53, and 58-57; while Ndoute yellow pods, Ndoute violet pods and Baye Ngagne were in the second group. The photosensitive varieties (Ndoute yellow pods and Ndoute violet pods) were closely clustered in the second group and so were inbred line Mouride and local cultivar 58-57, which is also one of the parents for inbred line Mouride. These molecular markers could be used for selection and identification of elite varieties for cowpea improvement and germplasm management in Senegal.
Diouf D.,Cheikh Anta Diop University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011
After decades of research on cowpea, significant amount of omics datasets are available and useful in understanding the genetic relationship between Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and other species belonging to the same genus as well as its genetic variation. Besides, the development of genetic map allowed the chromosome localization of molecular markers associated with disease resistance, seed weight, dehydrin, drought-induced genes, maturity and earliness, and the recent progresses made on cowpea genomic resources development and the availability of a genetic transformation protocol increased the chance to identify more genes and to study their expression. In addition, transcriptomic datasets suggested that many genes are expressed during drought, heating or in nitrogen deficiency conditions as well as during symbiosis and iron storage. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that the protein and metabolite fractions specifically accumulated in the embryogenic cell suspension and in manganese toxicity conditions, respectively. However, the integration of all these information will promote the improvement of cowpea production. © 2011 Academic Journals.
Toure A.,Cheikh Anta Diop University
Molecular biology reports | Year: 2012
The NAT2 genetic polymorphism determines the individual acetylator status and, consequently, the capacity to metabolize, or not, drugs and xenobiotics which are substrates of NAT2. As the nature and frequency of the NAT2 polymorphisms vary remarkably between populations of different ethnic origins, genotyping strategies used to predict the acetylation phenotype need to be adapted for each particular population regarding their genetic backgrounds at this locus. As few data on the genetic polymorphism of NAT2 are available in the Senegalese population, we performed an extensive identification of NAT2 variants in 105 healthy non-smoker Senegalese subjects by direct PCR sequencing of the coding region. Eleven previously described SNPs were identified in this Senegalese population. Upon allele analysis, the four most frequent alleles were of the NAT2*5- (35.7 %), NAT2*6- (21.0 %), NAT2*12- (16.7 %) and NAT2*14- (10.0 %) type, the remaining alleles, including the wild-type NAT2*4, having each a frequency lower than 10 %. According to the observed genotypes, 51 and 50 subjects were predicted to be of the rapid (48.6 %) and slow (47.6 %) acetylator phenotype, respectively, while four individuals (3.8 %) were considered of unknown phenotype as they carry at least one allele with a yet unknown functional effect. These baseline data would be of particular interest to set up an efficient genotyping strategy to predict the acetylation status of Senegalese patients with tuberculosis and, thus, to optimize their isoniazid treatment.