Cheboksary, Russia
Cheboksary, Russia

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Sable C.A.,Childrens National Medical Center | Aliyu Z.Y.,Howard University | Aliyu Z.Y.,Taraba State Specialist Hospital | Dham N.,Childrens National Medical Center | And 15 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2012

Background: Patients with Chuvash polycythemia, (homozygosity for the R200W mutation in the von Hippel Lindau gene (VHL)), have elevated levels of hypoxia inducible factors HIF-1 and HIF-2, often become iron-deficient secondary to phlebotomy, and have elevated estimated pulmonary artery pressure by echocardiography. The objectives of this study were to provide a comprehensive echocardiographic assessment of cardiovascular physiology and to identify clinical, hematologic and cardiovascular risk factors for elevation of tricuspid regurgitation velocity in children and adults with Chuvash polycythemia. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study of 120 adult and pediatric VHLR200W homozygotes and 31 controls at outpatient facilities in Chuvashia, Russian Federation included echocardiography assessment of pulmonary artery pressure (tricuspid regurgitation velocity), cardiac volume, and systolic and diastolic function, as well as hematologic and clinical parameters. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for elevation of tricuspid regurgitation velocity in this population and its relationship to phlebotomy. Results: The age-adjusted mean ± SE tricuspid regurgitation velocity was higher in VHLR200W homozy-gotes than controls with normal VHL alleles (2.5±0.03 vs. 2.3±0.05 m/sec, P=0.005). The age-adjusted left ventricular diastolic diameter (4.8±0.05 vs. 4.5±0.09 cm, P=0.005) and left atrial diameter (3.4±0.04 vs. 3.2±0.08 cm, P=0.011) were also greater in the VHLR200W homozygotes, consistent with increased blood volume, but the elevation in tricuspid regurgitation velocity persisted after adjustment for these variables. Among VHLR200W homozygotes, phlebotomy therapy was associated with lower serum ferritin concentration, and low ferritin independently predicted higher tricuspid regurgitation velocity (standardized beta=0.29; P=0.009). Conclusions: Children and adults with Chuvash polycythemia have higher estimated right ventricular systolic pressure, even after adjustment for echocardiography estimates of blood volume. Lower ferritin concentration, which is associated with phlebotomy, independently predicts higher tri-cuspid regurgitation velocity (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00495638). © 2012 Ferrata Storti Foundation.


Tomasic N.L.,University of Zagreb | Piterkova L.,University of Utah | Piterkova L.,Palacky University | Huff C.,University of Utah | And 8 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2013

Mutations of VHL (a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factors) have position-dependent distinct cancer phenotypes. Only two known inherited homozygous VHL mutations exist and they cause polycythemia: Chuvash R200W and Croatian H191D. We report a second polycythemic Croatian H191D homozygote distantly related to the first propositus. Three generations of both families were genotyped for analysis of shared ancestry. Biochemical and molecular tests were performed to better define their phenotypes, with an emphasis on a comparison with Chuvash polycythemia. The VHL H191D mutation did not segregate in the family defined by the known common ancestors of the two subjects, suggesting a high prevalence in Croatians, but haplotype analysis indicated an undocumented common ancestor ~six generations ago as the founder of this mutation. We show that erythropoietin levels in homozygous VHL H191D individuals are higher than in VHL R200W patients of similar ages, and their native erythroid progenitors, unlike Chuvash R200W, are not hypersensitive to erythropoietin. This observation contrasts with a report suggesting that polycythemia in VHL R200W and H191D homozygotes is due to the loss of JAK2 regulation from VHL R200W and H191D binding to SOCS1. In conclusion, our studies further define the hematologic phenotype of VHL H191D and provide additional evidence for phenotypic heterogeneity associated with the positional effects of VHL mutations. © 2013 Ferrata Storti Foundation.


Zhang X.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Zhang W.,Northwestern University | Saraf S.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Nouraie M.,Howard University | And 14 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Environmental variations have strong influences in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the genetic basis of diabetes in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), a Mendelian disorder accompanied by distinct physiological conditions of hypoxia and hyperactive erythropoiesis. Compared to the general African American population, the prevalence of diabetes as assessed in two SCD cohorts of 856 adults was low, but it markedly increased with older age and overweight. Meta-analyses of over 5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two SCD cohorts identified a SNP, rs59014890, the C allele of which associated with diabetes risk at P = 3.2 × 10−8 and, surprisingly, associated with decreased APOB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The risk allele of the APOB polymorphism was associated with overweight in 181 SCD adolescents, with diabetes risk in 592 overweight, non-SCD African Americans ≥45 years of age, and with elevated plasma lipid concentrations in general populations. In addition, lower expression level of APOB in PBMCs was associated with higher values for percent hemoglobin A1C and serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in patients with Chuvash polycythemia, a congenital disease with elevated hypoxic responses and increased erythropoiesis at normoxia. Our study reveals a novel, environment-specific genetic polymorphism that may affect key metabolic pathways contributing to diabetes in SCD. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Gordeuk V.R.,Howard University | Miasnikova G.Y.,Chuvash Republic Clinical Hospital No 1 | Sergueeva A.I.,Cheboksary Childrens Hospital | Niu X.,Howard University | And 7 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Hypoxia is known to reduce the expression of hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism. However, it is not clear whether this response is primarily related to increased erythropoiesis driven by hypoxically stimulated erythropoietin or to a more direct effect of hypoxia on hepcidin expression. The germline loss-of-functionVHLR200Wmutation is common in Chuvashia, Russia, and also occurs elsewhere. VHLR200W homozygotes have elevated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α levels, increased red cell mass, propensity to thrombosis, and early mortality. Ninety VHLR200Whomozygotes and 52 controls with normal VHL alleles from Chuvashia, Russia, were studied under basal circumstances. In univariate analyses, serum hepcidin concentration was correlated positively with serum ferritin concentration and negatively with homozygosity for VHLR200W. After adjustment for serum erythropoietin and ferritin concentrations by multiple linear regression, the geometric mean (95% confidence interval of mean) hepcidin concentration was 8.1 (6.3-10.5) ng/mL in VHLR200W homozygotes versus 26.9 (18.6-38.0) ng/mL in controls (P < .001). In contrast, a significant independent relationship of serum erythropoietin, hemoglobin, orRBCcount with hepcidin was not observed. In conclusion, up-regulation of the hypoxic response leads to decreased expression of hepcidin that may be independent of increased erythropoietin levels and increased RBC counts. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.


Miasnikova G.Y.,Chuvash Republic Clinical Hospital No 1 | Sergueeva A.I.,Cheboksary Childrens Hospital | Nouraie M.,Howard University | Niu X.,Howard University | And 5 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2011

The germ-line loss-of-function VHLR200W mutation is common in Chuvashia, Russia and occurs in other parts of the world. VHLR200W homozygotes have elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2 levels, increased hemoglobin concentration, propensity to thrombosis and early mortality. Because the mutation persists from an ancient origin, we hypothesized that there is a heterozygote advantage. Thirty-four VHLR200W heterozygotes and 44 controls over 35 years of age from Chuvashia, Russia were studied. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin less than 130 g/L in men and less than 120 g/L in women. Mild anemia was present in 15% of VHLR200W heterozygotes and 34% of controls without a mutated VHL allele. By multivariate logistic regression, the odds of anemia were reduced an estimated 5.6-fold in the VHLR200W heterozygotes compared to controls (95% confidence interval 1.4-22.7; P=0.017). In conclusion, heterozygosity for VHLR200W may provide protection from anemia; such protection could explain the persistence of this mutation. © 2011 Ferrata Storti Foundation.


McClain D.A.,University of Utah | Abuelgasim K.A.,Howard University | Nouraie M.,Howard University | Salomon-Andonie J.,Howard University | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glycolysis by increased expression of enzymes such as PDK. On the other hand, inactivation of Vhl in murine liver leads to hypoglycemia associated with a HIF-2-related decrease in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme genes Pepck, G6pc, and Glut2. We therefore hypothesized that glucose concentrations are decreased in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia. We found that 88 Chuvash VHL R200W homozygotes had lower random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels than 52 Chuvash subjects with wild-type VHL alleles. Serum metabolomics revealed higher glycerol and citrate levels in the VHL R200W homozygotes. We expanded these observations in VHL R200W homozygote mice and found that they had lower fasting glucose values and lower glucose excursions than wild-type control mice but no change in fasting insulin concentrations. Hepatic expression of Glut2 and G6pc, but not Pdk2, was decreased, and skeletal muscle expression of Glut1, Pdk1, and Pdk4 was increased. These results suggest that both decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased skeletal uptake and glycolysis contribute to the decreased glucose concentrations. Further study is needed to determine whether pharmacologically manipulating HIF expression might be beneficial for treatment of diabetic patients. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhang X.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Zhang W.,University of Chicago | Ma S.-F.,Cheboksary Childrens Hospital | Desai A.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 17 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND-: We postulated that the hypoxic response in sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to altered gene expression and pulmonary hypertension, a complication associated with early mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS-: To identify genes regulated by the hypoxic response and not other effects of chronic anemia, we compared expression variation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 subjects with SCD with hemoglobin SS genotype and 15 subjects with Chuvash polycythemia (VHL homozygotes with constitutive upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors in the absence of anemia or hypoxia). At a 5% false discovery rate, 1040 genes exhibited >1.15-fold change in both conditions; 297 were upregulated and 743 downregulated including MAPK8 encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase important for apoptosis, T-cell differentiation, and inflammatory responses. Association mapping with a focus on local regulatory polymorphisms in 61 patients with SCD identified expression quantitative trait loci for 103 of these hypoxia response genes. In a University of Illinois SCD cohort, the A allele of a MAPK8 expression quantitative trait locus, rs10857560, was associated with precapillary pulmonary hypertension defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15 mm Hg at right heart catheterization (allele frequency, 0.66; odds ratio, 13.8; n=238). This association was confirmed in an independent Walk-Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension and Sickle Cell Disease With Sildenafil Therapy cohort (allele frequency, 0.65; odds ratio, 11.3; n=519). The homozygous AA genotype of rs10857560 was associated with decreased MAPK8 expression and present in all 14 of the identified precapillary pulmonary hypertension cases among the combined 757 patients. CONCLUSIONS-: Our study demonstrates a prominent hypoxic transcription component in SCD and a MAPK8 expression quantitative trait locus associated with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Associtian, Inc.


Yoon D.,University of Utah | Okhotin D.V.,Howard University | Kim B.,Baylor College of Medicine | Okhotina Y.,Howard University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2010

Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHLR200W) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. HIF-1α inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Cip1, thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2α promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a+/- mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1α, hepatic HIF-2α mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21Cip1 mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a+/- mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2α and decreased p21Cip1 levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Zhang X.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Zhang W.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Ma S.-F.,University of Chicago | Miasniakova G.,Chuvash Republic Clinical Hospital 2 | And 10 more authors.
Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases | Year: 2014

In congenital Chuvash polycythemia (CP), VHLR200W homozygosity leads to elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) levels at normoxia. CP is often treated by phlebotomy resulting in iron deficiency, permitting us to examine the separate and synergistic effects of iron deficiency and HIF signaling on gene expression. We compared peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles of eight VHLR200W homozygotes with 17 wildtype individuals with normal iron status and found 812 up-regulated and 2120 down-regulated genes at false discovery rate of 0.05. Among differential genes we identified three major gene regulation modules involving induction of innate immune responses, alteration of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and down-regulation of cell proliferation, stress-induced apoptosis and T-cell activation. These observations suggest molecular mechanisms for previous observations in CP of lower blood sugar without increased insulin and low oncogenic potential. Studies including 16 additional VHLR200W homozygotes with low ferritin indicated that iron deficiency enhanced the induction effect of VHLR200W for 50 genes including hemoglobin synthesis loci but suppressed the effect for 107 genes enriched for HIF-2 targets. This pattern is consistent with potentiation of HIF-1α protein stability by iron deficiency but a trend for down-regulation of HIF-2α translation by iron deficiency overriding an increase in HIF-2α protein stability. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Northwestern University, Howard University, Cheboksary Childrens Hospital, University of Utah and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2016

Blood erythropoietin (EPO) increases primarily to hypoxia. In sickle cell anaemia (homozygous HBB

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