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Saripalli G.,Chcharan Singh University | Gupta P.K.,Chcharan Singh University
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2015

Key message: AGPase, a key enzyme of starch biosynthetic pathway, has a significant role in crop productivity. Thermotolerant variants of AGPase in cereals may be used for developing cultivars, which may enhance productivity under heat stress. Abstract: Improvement of crop productivity has always been the major goal of plant breeders to meet the global demand for food. However, crop productivity itself is influenced in a large measure by a number of abiotic stresses including heat, which causes major losses in crop productivity. In cereals, crop productivity in terms of grain yield mainly depends upon the seed starch content so that starch biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in this process have been a major area of investigation for plant physiologists and plant breeders alike. Considerable work has been done on AGPase and its role in crop productivity, particularly under heat stress, because this enzyme is one of the major enzymes, which catalyses the rate-limiting first committed key enzymatic step of starch biosynthesis. Keeping the above in view, this review focuses on the basic features of AGPase including its structure, regulatory mechanisms involving allosteric regulators, its sub-cellular localization and its genetics. Major emphasis, however, has been laid on the genetics of AGPases and its manipulation for developing high yielding cultivars that will have comparable productivity under heat stress. Some important thermotolerant variants of AGPase, which mainly involve specific amino acid substitutions, have been highlighted, and the prospects of using these thermotolerant variants of AGPase in developing cultivars for heat prone areas have been discussed. The review also includes a brief account on transgenics for AGPase, which have been developed for basic studies and crop improvement. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kachanathu S.J.,King Saud University | Anand B.,Chcharan Singh University | Nuhmani S.,Hamdard University | Hafez A.R.,Cairo University
Physikalische Medizin Rehabilitationsmedizin Kurortmedizin | Year: 2014

Objectives: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used in rehabilitation protocols for patients suffering from muscle weakness. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of NMES on isometric quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle strength and functional outcomes in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A total of 30 patients of OA with a mean age of 61.17±4.3 years were participated in the study. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in to one of the 2 groups, group A and B (n=15) in each group. Patients in group-B were undergone NMES to the QF along with conventional physiotherapeutic regime for 3 weeks whereas, group-A was given only conventional physiotherapeutic regime. The study outcomes such as isometric strength at 20, 40 and 60° of knee flexion, mean isometric muscle strength and functional outcomes by WOMAC index score were measured at baseline, 9 days and end of 3 weeks of post intervention. Results: Comparison of quadriceps muscle strength at 20,40 and 60° and its mean in knee flexion and WOMAC index score were within group-A were non-significant (p>0.05) whereas, in group-B (p<0.05). The quadriceps muscle strength at 20° between groups at base line, 9th day and post test at 21st day showed significant improvement in NMES group (p<0.05). Similar difference was repeated with NMES group at 40 and 60° and WOMAC functional index score also. Conclusions: Study result indicates that NMES is effective in improving muscle strength thereby improving the functional activities of patients with knee OA. NMES along with conventional physiotherapeutic approach is a better choice for the management of knee OA. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

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