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Rocourt, Belgium

Verwied-Jorky S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schiess S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Luque V.,Rovira i Virgili University | Grote V.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVES:: The aim of this study was to describe developed methods for repeated longitudinal assessment of feeding habits and nutrient intakes of children in a multicenter trial in different European countries and to assess feasibility. PATIENTS AND METHODS:: Nutrient intake and dietary habits of formula-fed and breast-fed infants were assessed in 5 European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain). Prospective age-adapted 3-day weighed food records were used from birth to 2 years of age (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months). Standard operating procedures were developed to check each day's food record for quality. Dietitians were trained by using standardized food records. Data entry and nutrient analyses were performed with a dedicated software developed for this project. RESULTS:: Of 1368 study participants, at least one 3-day food record was available; of 25,367 1-day food records, data on quality could be evaluated. Overall, between 81% and 97% (depending on the country) of the food records had been completed with high accuracy. The implementation of solid foods and regular family foods decreased the recording quality significantly during the 2-year time course (P < 0.001). The standardized training shows coefficients of variation up to a maximum of about 41%, indicating differences in data entry. CONCLUSIONS:: The experiences gathered indicate that collecting dietary and behavioral data in a large number of infants from different cultures is a challenging but feasible task in which permanent supervision and training is vital. However, we conclude that the established methodology is suitable to obtain valuable results on current infant nutrition practice in Europe. Copyright © 2010 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology.

Allegaert K.,University Hospitals Leuven | Langhendries J.P.,CHC site St. Vincent | Van Den Anker J.N.,Childrens National Medical Center | Van Den Anker J.N.,George Washington University
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Effective and safe drug administration in young infants should be based on integrated knowledge concerning the evolving physiological characteristics of the infant who will receive the drug and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of a given drug. Consequently, clinical pharmacology in neonates is as dynamic and diverse as the neonates we are entitled to take care of. Even more than median estimates, covariates of variability within the population are of clinical relevance. We aim to illustrate the complexity and the need for neonatal clinical pharmacology based on the gap between current and likely best clinical practice for two commonly administered compounds (aminoglycosides for infection and ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus) and one new compound (bevacizumab, to treat threshold retinopathy of prematurity). Progression has been made to render pharmacokinetic studies child size, e.g., low volume samples, optimal study design, and population pharmacokinetics. Challenges to further improve clinical pharmacology in neonates include, when appropriate, the validation of off-patent drug dosing regimens and of infant-tailored formulations. Knowledge integration, i.e., the use of available data to improve current drug use and to predict pharmacokinetics/ pharmacodynamics for similar compounds is needed. Development of clinical research networks is helpful to achieve these goals. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Langhendries J.-P.,CHC site St. Vincent | Allegaert K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Den Anker J.N.,Childrens National Medical Center | Van Den Anker J.N.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2016

There has been an exponential increase in the frequency of immune deviations in young children. Consequently, research investigating environmental causes for this increase has become a Public Health priority. We have summarized the experimental observations and epidemiological data that could link repeated acetaminophen and ibuprofen exposure in early infancy to this increase. Recent observations on the maturational immunity of the intestinal sub-mucosal lamina propria underscore indeed the importance of prostaglandins (PGE2s). PGE2 appearing at this sub-mucosal level is a product of arachidonic acid metabolism mediated by type-2 cyclooxygenase (COX-2) situated on the membrane of many immune cells. Moreover, it seems that acetaminophen - like ibuprofen - also carries a non-selective inhibitory action on peripheral COXs, besides its central action. This inhibitory action of acetaminophen on COX2 only relates to physiological, low arachidonic acid concentrations. This explains the difference in anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of repeated inhibition of mucosal PGE2 synthesis due to COX-inhibitor exposure on maturational immunity has been demonstrated in animal experiments. Repeatedly exposed young animals do not develop tolerance to food antigens and exhibit autoimmune deviations. Several recent epidemiological studies have also reported on the magnitude of acetaminophen and ibuprofen exposure in children and the increase in immune deviations, it is important to better understand the potential negative impact of repeated inhibitions of prostaglandin synthesis by COX2s during infancy. Since acetaminophen and ibuprofen are commonly administered analgesics and antipyretics, a well-designed prospective strategy for pharmacovigilance and -epidemiology of COX-inhibitor exposure in infancy is urgently needed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Langhendries J.-P.,CHC site St. Vincent | Maton P.,CHC site St. Vincent | Francois A.,CHC site St. Vincent | Marguglio A.,CHC site St. Vincent | And 3 more authors.
Archives de Pediatrie | Year: 2010

The pre and postnatal development of human immunity are remarkably continuous. The feto-placental unit builds up to promote a climate of immune tolerance specifically driven in this way by the maternal immunity. The process of birth triggers the development of the infant's postnatal immunity, in first place through the bacterial colonisation of a sterile intestinal mucosa. The progressive immune response stabilisation at the sub-mucosa level during the first year of life will arise from the interface between the host and its microflora. It will take place progressively and will occur thanks to a variety of successive and complementary very complex immune mechanisms, under the influence of a rich and diversified intestinal microbiotia. Solid scientific arguments allow hypothesising that immune deviances later in life could be the consequence of an inadequate bacterial pressure on the intestinal mucosa at the early stage. A variety of epigenetic modifications taking place in this early stage could account for the deviant programming of later immunity. Each health care provider should acknowledge that some therapeutic and nutritional interventions during the first year of life may interfere with this complex immune development, giving rise to a risk of increasing immune deviancies later on. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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