Chatham University is an American university that has coeducational academic programs through the doctoral level, located in the Shadyside neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. The current campus population of approximately 2,300 includes on-campus and online undergraduate and graduate students. The University grants certificates and degrees including bachelor, master, first-professional, and doctorate in the School of Arts, Science, and Business, the School of Health science, and the Falk School of Sustainability. Wikipedia.
News Article | February 23, 2017
NEW YORK, NY, February 23, 2017-- Janine Jordan has been included in Marquis Who's Who. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.After accruing many decades of practiced industry experience, Ms. Jordan has since retired. She started in the field as an illustrator's model in junior fashion - a position she held from 1938 until 1958. During this time, she was an English student at Columbia University and earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from Chatham University. Before she continued her art studies with renowned painters Amy Jones, Anthony Toney, her mother and illustrator Barbara Schwinn, and at the local community college, she served as a copy chief's assistant for J. Walter Thompson Agency. On behalf of America's top magazine illustrators she initiated selling their second reproduction rights to foreign publishers, as a partner at Schwinn-Jordan, and founder and president of International Editorial Arts Co. Ms. Jordan was a four time Cover Girl model through England Publications. Enjoying composing and improvisations, her avocation was occasionally as a featured jazz pianist at the Westchester Conservatory of Music. Professionally she has served as principal of J.J. Newlin Interiors, vice president and director of Braintree Management Ltd., and from 1990 owner of JJ Interiors, Kitchen and Bath Design by Janine.A Certified Kitchen Designer and specialist, Ms. Jordan affiliates herself as a lifetime member with the National Kitchen and Bath Association, the Design Society of America, the Alliance of Interior Designers, and the Allied Board of Trade since 1962 to remain abreast of changes in the field. As a member of the New York Junior League in the 1950s she taught English to the foreign born, and volunteered participation with various non-profit organizations. An industry speaker and panelist, her interior designs were published in Better Homes & Gardens, Home Remodeling, Woman's Day, Family Circle, Home Mechanix, trade magazines, Rodale Press and Gannett Newspapers, as well as many others. Ms Jordan spearheaded the teaching of kitchen and bath design in schools of architecture and interior design. She is the registered wholesale owner of JanSig imported mirrored bath cabinets. She has won many awards for her work in the field, including the Lifetime Excellence Award through the Alliance of Interior Designers, which she earned in 2014. She also earned CKD emerita standing from the National Kitchen and Bath Association the same year. Additionally, she has been named to two volumes of Who's Who in America.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America , Who's Who in the World , Who's Who in American Law , Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare , Who's Who in Science and Engineering , and Who's Who in Asia . Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com
News Article | December 8, 2016
ALEXANDRIA, Va.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The National Investor Relations Institute (NIRI) announced that at its annual meeting today, NIRI members elected four new directors to four year terms: Jason Landkamer, Director, Investor Relations, Fluor Corporation (NYSE: FLR); Carol Murray-Negron, President, Equanimity, Inc.; Melissa Plaisance, Group Vice President, Treasury & Investor Relations, Albertsons Companies; and Greg Secord, Vice President, Investor Relations, Open Text Corporation (NASDAQ: OTEX). Valerie Haertel, IRC, Board Chair of NIRI, and Global Head of Investor Relations for BNY Mellon (NYSE: BK), said, “It gives me great pleasure to announce the addition of these accomplished IR professionals to the NIRI Board of Directors. This new Board class was selected from among the largest group of potential candidates in recent history. The spirit of volunteerism among NIRI members is truly inspiring.” Haertel added, “I would like to thank those Board members who will be stepping down after their dedicated service to NIRI: Ruth Cotter, Anne Guimard, Dennie Kimbrough and Felise Kissell, our former Chair. We owe each Board member who is completing their service a debt of gratitude as NIRI is better and stronger for their selfless commitment to our mission. “We were fortunate to have had Felise Kissell’s inspirational leadership and guidance during an important transitional year as we seek to create an even stronger NIRI. I look forward to continuing our partnership as Felise continues her work on the search committee and joins a new onboarding team I am forming to ensure the successful transition of a new CEO once selected and of our newly appointed Board members,” concluded Haertel. Jason Landkamer is Director, Investor Relations at Fluor Corporation. He is responsible for communicating with the financial community, targeting potential investors, corporate message development and sell-side analyst relations. Mr. Landkamer has over 20 years’ experience in finance related roles, including 18 years in investor relations. He serves on Fluor’s sustainability committee and designs and produces the company’s annual report. Mr. Landkamer, along with the Fluor Investor Relations team, have consistently been ranked as one of the best Investor Relations Officers and best IR departments for the Engineering & Construction sector by Institutional Investor magazine since 2008. Prior to joining Fluor in 2006, he was with AmeriCredit Corp. for seven years in various investor relations roles, including three years as AVP of investor relations. Mr. Landkamer has been an active member of NIRI since 2000, and has served on the NIRI Dallas*Fort Worth chapter Board of Directors in a number of capacities including at-large board member, treasurer, executive vice president and president. He graduated from Oklahoma State University with a B.S. in Finance. Carol Murray-Negron is President of Equanimity, Inc. Ms. Murray-Negron coaches senior executives and leaders to optimize their performance, leadership presence, and strategic communications, and is an adjunct professor of investor relations at New York University's School of Professional Studies. Ms. Murray-Negron’s corporate experience includes senior positions with Avon Products, Inc., in both U.S. and International. During her tenure as Vice-President, Investor Relations, Avon's IR program received industry recognition as "Most Improved IR" among mid-cap companies. Other senior positions at Avon included Marketing Vice-President of Asia-Pacific, where she implemented a coordinated regional marketing strategy and also held line (P&L) responsibility for two Asian markets, and Regional Vice-President of U.S. Sales, where she provided motivational leadership to Avon's largest sales group. Ms. Murray-Negron received IR Magazine's Lifetime Achievement Award, and is a Fellow of NIRI. She holds an M.F.A. in Drama from Yale University and a B.A. in English from Chatham University, where she received the 2016 Alumni Leadership Award. Melissa Plaisance is Group Vice President, Treasury & Investor Relations for Albertsons Companies, a food retailer with approximately $60 billion in sales. Her responsibilities include financing, banking and rating agency relationships, cash management, payments, and investor relations. Prior to this role, she was GVP, Strategic Initiatives, and was engaged in identifying and tracking incremental synergies, negotiating payments contracts, and providing investor relations support for former Safeway shareholders and debt holders. Previously, she was SVP, Finance & Investor Relations for Safeway Inc. with responsibility for the treasury and investor relations departments, and was involved in the company’s strategic development activities. In addition, she had responsibility for Corporate Communications and Public Affairs for five years. Ms. Plaisance also previously served as SVP, Finance and Corporate Communications with Del Monte Foods and as a Vice President in the leveraged buyout group with Bankers Trust Company. She is a member of the San Francisco chapter of NIRI, and served on the Steering Committee of the NIRI Senior Roundtable and as Co-Chair of the NIRI Annual Conference. Ms. Plaisance graduated cum laude from Bucknell University with a B.S. in Business Administration, and received an M.B.A. from the UCLA Anderson Graduate School of Management. Greg Secord is Vice President, Investor Relations for Open Text Corporation with responsibility for relations with sell-side analysts and institutional investors. Mr. Secord has 20 years of IR experience in both North American and European capital markets, and has managed IR through over 50 acquisitions. He has consulted, advised and counseled many industry leaders including some of the largest technology and insurance companies in Canada. He has created presentation materials for the Toronto Stock Exchange to educate executives of newly listed companies on the fundamentals of best practices IR. He has also been quoted in industry trade publications and is a published contributor to post-secondary text books on business and accounting. He is the recipient of numerous IR Magazine Awards in Canada including for Best Investor Relations Officer, Best Overall Investor Relations, Best Use of Technology and Best Investment Community Meetings. Mr. Secord is incoming chair of NIRI’s Senior Roundtable, and is a past board member for NIRI’s Virtual Chapter, and the Canadian Investor Relations Institute (Ontario). Founded in 1969, NIRI (www.NIRI.org) is the professional association of corporate officers and investor relations consultants responsible for communication among corporate management, shareholders, securities analysts and other financial community constituents. NIRI is the largest professional investor relations association in the world with more than 3,300 members representing over 1,600 publicly held companies and $9 trillion in stock market capitalization.
News Article | December 15, 2016
PITTSBURGH, PA--(Marketwired - December 15, 2016) - Chatham University today announced a new awards program and scholarship for high school and community college students that celebrates the legacy of scientist, author, environmentalist and Chatham alumna Rachel Carson, class of 1929. The Rachel Carson Healthy Planet Award will be awarded to one deserving student nominated from each high school and community college throughout the United States, who embodies the spirit of Rachel Carson in his or her dedication to sustainability and community development. Healthy Planet Award recipients will also receive preferred consideration for the Rachel Carson Scholarship, a full-tuition scholarship to attend Chatham University. "Rachel Carson has been an inspiration and a catalyst for Chatham's embrace of sustainability in our mission, our programs and throughout the larger university," said David Finegold, president of Chatham University. "The Rachel Carson Healthy Planet Award & Scholarship was created to honor and extend her legacy, inspiration and impact to a new generation of leaders who will help complete her vision of healthier people and a healthier planet." Carson rose to prominence with her book, Silent Spring, as a trailblazing voice questioning the resulting impact of pesticides on people, animals and the environment. This call to attention was a catalyst of the environmental movement that has helped bring awareness and action to the ecological programs our planet faces, and led to her selection as one of Time Magazine's most influential people of the 20th century. Winners of the Rachel Carson Healthy Planet Award will receive a a special edition of Carson's book Silent Spring, a certificate of achievement, a $5,000 merit scholarship to attend Chatham University, and an invitation (with discounted price) to Chatham's Sustainable Leadership Academy, scheduled for July 30-August 5, 2017. For more information about the award or to nominate a student, visit www.chatham.edu/rachel-carson-award. Healthy Planet Award recipients will also receive preferred consideration for the Rachel Carson Scholarship, a full-tuition scholarship to attend Chatham University. The scholarship is awarded each year to one new first-year student and one new transfer student from a community college. Applicants must meet all scholarship requirements and be accepted to Chatham in order to qualify for a scholarship interview. The deadline for the scholarship is April 1, 2017 for community college students and November 1, 2017 for high school seniors. More information is available at www.chatham.edu/scholarships. Carson's work also inspired Chatham's commitment to advancing sustainability education, implementation and research. Carson's thinking and devotion to improve the world are just two of the qualities Chatham's Falk School of Sustainability & Environment works to bring to life through its students. Housed at Chatham's Eden Hall campus, the world's first academic community built from below the ground up for the study of sustainability, the Falk School offers academic programs dedicated to producing professional sustainability leaders. Programs currently being offered at the bachelor's and master's levels include: Bachelor of Sustainability (BSUS), Master of Arts in Food Studies (MAFS), Master of Sustainability (MSUS) and the dual-degree Master of Sustainability-Master of Business Administration (MSUS-MBA). Chatham is the alma mater of environmental icon, Rachel Carson, and is recognized today as a leader in sustainability and environmental education perennial named to top green college lists and is ranked in the top five nationally for sustainability achievements in the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System™ (STARS), placing us as one of the top 5 highest ranked colleges in the world. Chatham is also home to the Falk School of Sustainability & Environment, and in 2014 opened Eden Hall Campus, the first campus in the world built from the ground up for the study of sustainability. More information at www.chatham.edu. Documents and/or Photos available for this release: Chatham University Honors Legacy of Trailblazing Environmentalist and Chatham Alumna With Rachel Carson Healthy Planet Awards Program and Scholarship To view supporting documents and/or photos, go to www.enr-corp.com/pressroom and enter Release ID: 407081
News Article | December 14, 2016
Three has become five. Laetoli in northern Tanzania is the site of iconic ancient footprints, capturing the moment – 3.66 million years ago – when three members of Lucy’s species (Australopithecus afarensis) strode out across the landscape. Now something quite unexpected has come to light: the footprints of two other individuals. “Our discovery left us without words,” says Marco Cherin at the University of Perugia, Italy. The find looks set to transform our understanding of the Laetoli site and the social dynamics of australopiths, as well as their style of walking. The original Laetoli footprints were discovered in 1976. Nothing quite like them had ever been found before. They remain by far the oldest hominin footprints we know, fortuitously preserved because a group of australopiths walked across damp volcanic ash during the brief window of time before it turned from soft powder into hard rock. “Geologists say this hardening process must have occurred in just a few hours,” says Cherin. The new discovery came about by chance. Keen to build a museum at Laetoli to attract tourists, the authorities asked Fidelis Masao, a researcher at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate the impact that building work would have on the site’s valuable geology, says Cherin. Masao and his colleagues excavated about 65 pits to get a better sense of the extent of the ash layer in which the footprints were found. One of the pits contained the new footprints – and more archaeologists, including Cherin, began to study them. So far the researchers have uncovered 13 prints belonging to a large individual – dubbed S1 – and a single print belonging to a smaller S2 australopith. Once the whole area has been excavated, there could be as many as 50 prints belonging to S1, they say. S1 seems to have been walking in the same direction, at the same speed – and in all probability at the same time – as the australopiths whose footprints were uncovered in the 1970s. It has been all too tempting to interpret the original trackways – often reconstructed as belonging to two adults and one juvenile – as evidence of a prehistoric “nuclear family”. The new footprints show more adults were present, including one who was much larger, the S1 individual. That has spawned a new hypothesis about australopith social groups. “They were probably similar in certain respects to those of our cousins, the gorillas, with a single dominant big male accompanied by his females and their offspring,” says Giorgio Manzi at the Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, who was also involved in the excavations. However, in other respects australopiths might have been different from gorillas. A 2011 study of isotopes in australopith teeth – which can reveal where an individual grew up – suggests it was the smaller (probably female) australopiths that left their family groups to wander and join a new social group. This is unlike gorillas, where it’s larger males that leave their family to establish a new social group. The new footprints find could also help us determine if the australopiths walked like us, a controversial issue. Some researchers, like Robin Crompton at the University of Liverpool, UK, have studied the Laetoli prints found in the 1970s. They say the depth profiles of the prints show clearly that australopiths walked in a broadly modern way: the hominins seem to have had a well-developed arch in the foot, and they used their big toe to push off the ground. Other researchers, including Kevin Hatala at Chatham University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, have interpreted the prints differently. Earlier this year, Hatala and his colleagues concluded that the australopith gait might have looked a little strange to modern eyes, with the knees slightly bent as each foot struck the ground. “A substantially long trackway could prove very informative,” says Hatala. For Cherin, one of the most exciting aspects of the new finds is the size of the S1 australopith. Its feet were 26 centimetres in length – 3.5 cm longer than the other Laetoli prints. The scientists estimate S1 might have stood 1.65 metres tall, comparable with modern humans. However, William Jungers at Stony Brook University School of Medicine, New York, says we should treat that figure with caution. Hominin foot bones are exceptionally rare in the fossil record, and it’s not at all clear that australopiths had feet in the same proportion to their bodies as we do. “Australopiths aren’t modern people in many respects,” he says. We can expect to hear more when the researchers return to Laetoli to continue excavations, potentially as early as mid-2017.
News Article | October 28, 2016
eMindful, Inc. (“eMindful”), the industry leader in offering live, online, applied mindfulness programs today announced it had closed a $6.85 million, Series B round of financing. The financing will allow eMindful to accelerate its engagement marketing, new product development, and sales expansion. LFE Capital, (“LFE”) led the round and Leslie Frecon, Managing Partner of LFE, has joined the eMindful board of directors. Also participating in the round are existing investors One Earth Capital and the Bridge Builders Collaborative, as well as new investors New Ground Ventures and Fairground Capital. “We are very fortunate to have a number of high-quality venture capital firms support our Series B round, but LFE’s 15-year track record in the health and wellness space, along with their reputation for creating value, is simply unsurpassed,” said Kelley McCabe Ruff, CEO of eMindful. “LFE’s expertise in building enterprise value, and their skill in helping organizations with both long-term strategy and finance, will be excellent additions to our current outstanding board of directors.” “LFE is excited to be partnering with Kelley and the eMindful team to take the business to the next level. With mindfulness gaining widespread adoption, the quality and proven impact of the eMindful product create a compelling purchase proposition for corporations, healthcare providers and payors, and individuals. eMindful is well positioned to capitalize on this opportunity,” said Leslie Frecon. About eMindful: eMindful, based in Vero Beach, FL, provides globally scalable programs that specifically address stress and resilience, metabolic syndrome, chronic pain, diabetes, tobacco usage, and cancer. eMindful’s programs are backed by rigorous research and the company has years of experience collaborating in mindfulness research with such institutions as Vanderbilt University, Harvard Medical School, Chatham University, University of British Columbia and the University of Calgary. eMindful’s technology-enabled solutions are delivered through live, online classrooms taught by licensed health professionals and are designed to assist individuals prevent, mitigate, and slow the progression of diseases associated with family, work and lifestyle risk factors. The Company markets its programs to various customers, including corporations, managed care organizations, and third party administrators. About LFE Capital: LFE Capital is a private equity firm with offices in Naples and Minneapolis that provides growth capital to second stage businesses in the health and wellness sector. Its team believes that superior investments are found in smaller companies where the commitment to innovation and the opportunity to create significant value drive performance. A relationship with LFE Capital brings expansion capital and an operations oriented investor who will dedicate the time and resources required to build successful businesses. http://www.lfecapital.com
News Article | January 11, 2017
Famous footprints of nearly 3.7-million-year-old hominids, found in 1976 at Tanzania’s Laetoli site, now have sizable new neighbors. While excavating small pits in 2015 to evaluate the impact of a proposed field museum at Laetoli, researchers uncovered comparably ancient hominid footprints about 150 meters from the original discoveries. The new finds reveal a vast range of body sizes for ancient members of the human evolutionary family, reports an international team led by archaeologists Fidelis Masao and Elgidius Ichumbaki, both of the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. A description of the new Laetoli footprints appears online December 14 in eLife. Scientists exposed 14 hominid footprints, made by two individuals as they walked across wet volcanic ash. More than 500 footprints of ancient horses, rhinos, birds and other animals dotted the area around the hominid tracks. Like previously unearthed tracks of three individuals who apparently strode across the same layer of soft ash at the same time, the latest footprints were probably made by members of Australopithecus afarensis, the team says. Best known for Lucy, a partial skeleton discovered in Ethiopia in 1974, A. afarensis inhabited East Africa from around 4 million to 3 million years ago. All but one of the 14 hominid impressions come from the same individual. Based on footprint dimensions, the researchers estimate that this presumed adult male — nicknamed Chewie in honor of the outsized Star Wars character Chewbacca — stood about 5 feet 5 inches tall and weighed nearly 100 pounds. That makes him the tallest known A. afarensis. The team calculates that the remaining hominid footprint was probably made by a 4-foot-9-inch female who weighed roughly 87 pounds. Stature estimates based on the other three Laetoli footprint tracks fall below that of the ancient female. Lucy lived later than the Laetoli crowd, around 3.2 million years ago, and was about 3 ½ feet tall. If Laetoli’s five impression-makers were traveling together, “we can suppose that the Laetoli social group was similar to that of modern gorillas, with one large male and a harem of smaller females and perhaps juveniles,” says paleontologist and study coauthor Marco Cherin of the University of Perugia in Italy. Chewie’s stature challenges a popular assumption that hominid body sizes abruptly increased with the emergence of the Homo genus, probably shortly after A. afarensis died out, Cherin adds. The new paper presents reasonable stature estimates based on the Laetoli footprints, but “we don’t have a firm idea of how foot size was related to overall body size in Australopithecus,” says evolutionary biologist Kevin Hatala of Chatham University in Pittsburgh. Masao’s group referred to size data from present-day humans to calculate heights and weights of A. afarensis footprint-makers. That approach “could lead to some error,” Hatala says. Stature estimates based on footprints face other obstacles, says paleoanthropologist Yohannes Haile-Selassie of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. For instance, some tall individuals have small feet and short folks occasionally have long feet. It’s also unclear whether the new footprints and those from 1976 represent a single group, or if some smaller footprints were also made by males, Haile-Selassie adds. Cherin’s proposal that large A. afarensis males controlled female harems “is a bit of a stretch,” Haile-Selassie says. The new report doesn’t document surprisingly large size differences among members of Lucy’s kind, Haile-Selassie adds. A. afarensis fossils previously excavated in Ethiopia include a partial male skeleton now estimated by Haile-Selassie and his colleagues to have been only about three inches shorter than Chewie’s reported height (SN: 7/17/10, p. 5).
University of Pittsburgh and Chatham University | Date: 2014-08-19
Compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof, having a structure of: wherein each of R^(1)-R^(5 )is individually selected from H, halogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, nitro, sulfonamide, hydroxy, or amino; and R^(6 )is selected from H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted aryl.
Habib M.,Chatham University
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010
Mass-specific bone strength was examined in the forelimb and hindlimb of 64 species of birds to determine if aquaflying birds (which utilize the wings for propulsion underwater) differ in their skeletal strength compared with other avian taxa. Long bone strengths were estimated from cross-sectional measurements. Compared with the expectation from geometric similarity, humeral section modulus in volant birds scales nearly isometrically, while femoral strength scales with significant positive allometry. Penguin mass-specific humeral strength is greatly elevated, but the average humeral strength in species that are propelled by the wings in both air and water do not differ from the values calculated in non-diving taxa. However, amphibious flyers have gracile femora. Comparative analyses using independent contrasts were utilized to examine the impact of phylogenetic signal. The residual measured for the penguin-procellariiform humeral strength contrast was larger in magnitude (residual of 2.14) than at any other node in the phylogeny. The data strongly indicate that the transition from an amphibious flight condition to a fully aquatic condition involves greater changes in mechanical factors than the transition from purely aerial locomotion to amphibious wing use. There remains the possibility that a historical effect, such as ancestral body size, has impacted the mechanical scaling of penguins. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.
Lambert L.A.,Chatham University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2012
Background: In vertebrates, serum transferrins are essential iron transporters that have bind and release Fe(III) in response to receptor binding and changes in pH. Some family members such as lactoferrin and melanotransferrin can also bind iron while others have lost this ability and have gained other functions, e.g., inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (mammals), saxiphilin (frogs) and otolith matrix protein 1 (fish). Scope of review: This article provides an overview of the known transferrin family members and their associated receptors and interacting partners. Major conclusions: The number of transferrin genes has proliferated as a result of multiple duplication events, and the resulting paralogs have developed a wide array of new functions. Some homologs in the most primitive metazoan groups resemble both serum and melanotransferrins, but the major yolk proteins show considerable divergence from the rest of the family. Among the transferrin receptors, the lack of TFR2 in birds and reptiles, and the lack of any TFR homologs among the insects draw attention to the differences in iron transport and regulation in those groups. General significance: The transferrin family members are important because of their clinical significance, interesting biochemical properties, and evolutionary history. More work is needed to better understand the functions and evolution of the non-vertebrate family members. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Molecular Mechanisms of Iron Transport and Disorders. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Viehland L.A.,Chatham University
International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry | Year: 2012
The zero-field mobilities of 46 atomic ions in helium are calculated as functions of the gas temperature in an ion mobility spectrometer. The calculations are based on highly accurate, ab initio potential energy curves obtained in the last few years. In general, they start from a small value at low temperature, rise steadily to a maximum at some specific temperature, T max, and then decline at higher temperatures. The ratio of T max to the dissociation energy (well depth) of the ion-neutral interaction potential is shown to be approximation the same for all singly-charged ions and a few multiply-charged ions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.