Chateau Mercian

Yamanashi, Japan

Chateau Mercian

Yamanashi, Japan

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Takase H.,Process 9 | Takase H.,Yamanashi University | Sasaki K.,Process 9 | Shinmori H.,Yamanashi University | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2015

Rotundone, an oxygenated sesquiterpene, is responsible for the peppery aroma in wines. We developed an effective and simple method to determine trace levels of rotundone in grapes and wines. The method uses stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with heart-cutting two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry without a pre-extraction process such as solid-phase extraction. The limits of detection and quantitation for rotundone were 2.1 and 6.5 ng/kg in grape and 2.4 and 7.2 ng/L in wine. The recoveries of rotundone from Cabernet Sauvignon grape and wine were 106% (spiked with 120 ng/kg for grape) and 96% (spiked with 120 ng/L for wine), respectively. We demonstrated that rotundone concentrations in Syrah grapes and wines from Ueda were higher (up to 2342 ng/kg and 232 ng/L, respectively) than the maximal rotundone concentrations in Australian Syrah grapes and wines. Findings indicate that some environmental factors in Japan may promote rotundone accumulation in Syrah grapes, and underscores the importance of studying regional characteristics of rotundone accumulation in Syrah grapes. © 2015 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.


Takase H.,Process 9 | Takase H.,Yamanashi University | Sasaki K.,Process 9 | Shinmori H.,Yamanashi University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2016

(-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


PubMed | Yamanashi University, Chateau Mercian and Process 9
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of experimental botany | Year: 2016

(-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a -guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform -guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. -Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of -guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of -guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a -guaiene 2-oxidase.


Sasaki K.,Process 9 | Takase H.,Process 9 | Kobayashi H.,Chateau Mercian | Matsuo H.,Chateau Mercian | Takata R.,Process 9
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2015

2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a signifcant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identifed. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. © 2015 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


Sasaki K.,Process 9 | Takase H.,Process 9 | Tanzawa F.,Process 9 | Kobayashi H.,Chateau Mercian | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2015

2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) was reported to be responsible for the strawberry-like aroma in some Vitis labrusca and hybrid (V. labrusca x V. vinifera) winegrapes. This study identified furaneol glucopyranoside in the juice of a Japanese hybrid grape, Muscat Bailey A [V. labrusca (Bailey) x V. vinifera (Muscat Hamburg)], using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of furaneol glucopyranoside and furaneol in the juices of Concord (V. labrusca) and Muscat Bailey A were much higher than those in the juices of other V. vinifera varieties. It was also demonstrated that furaneol and its glucopyranoside were accumulated mainly in Muscat Bailey A berry flesh. These findings are expected to contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of formation in grapes and to the understanding of the characteristic strawberry-like aroma of Muscat Bailey A wines. © 2015 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.

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