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Richardson, TX, United States

Cristofanilli M.,Chase Medical
Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Successful management of breast cancer in the metastatic setting is often confounded by resistance to chemotherapeutics, in particular anthracyclines and taxanes. The limited number of effective treatment options for patients with more aggressive biological subtypes, such as triple-negative metastatic breast cancer, is especially concerning. As such, a therapy clinically proven to be effective in this subtype would be of great value. Ixabepilone, a novel synthetic lactam analog of epothilone B, demonstrated better clinical outcomes in metastatic disease, particularly in triple-negative breast cancer. Most recently, studies have shown the activity of ixabepilone in the neoadjuvant setting, suggesting a role for this drug in primary disease. Notably, treating in the neoadjuvant setting might allow clinicians to explore the predictive value of biomarkers and response to treatment, as pharmacogenomic approaches to therapy continue to evolve. In this article, we review the efficacy and safety data of ixabepilone as a monotherapy and as a component of combination therapy for metastatic and primary breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Massimo Cristofanilli. Source

Inherited mutations in 1 of 4 known mismatch repair genes (MLM, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2) are associated with various cancer risks collectively referred to as Lynch syndrome. Roughly 3 of every 100 new colorectal cancers (CRCs) have an underlying Lynch mutation. Tumor-based screening for Lynch among all patients with newly diagnosed CRC could theoretically improve the ability to identify Lynch and prevent cancer among at-risk family members, but the patient-level and social implications of this approach must be carefully considered before adopting this strategy. Poorly addressed issues include the role/timing of informed consent for testing, access and cost barriers associated with genetic counseling and DNA testing, psychosocial burdens to the thousands of middle-aged and elderly patients with CRC coping with surgical and chemotherapy treatments and poor prognosis, the need for providers to warn third-party relatives of risk for Lynch syndrome, limited effectiveness of screening, and the cost burden to society when poor DNA testing uptake, test limitations, and modest screening compliance are considered. Diverse barriers to the success of a population-based Lynch screening program in the United States remain (e.g., clinical resource needs, financial limitations, clinical expertise gaps, educational deficits). Data supporting clinical efficacy (feasibility) and effectiveness (real-life performance) are critical before important policy changes are adopted, especially where issues of hereditary cancer risk and genetic privacy are involved. © Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Source

Smith M.R.,Chase Medical
Future Oncology | Year: 2011

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an uncommon subtype of B-cell lymphomathat is characterized by monoclonal B cells that express CD5 on their surface, but not CD23, and harbor the t(11:14) chromosomal translocation that leads to dysregulated expression of cyclin D1. MCL is a biologically and clinically heterogeneous disease. It has the unfavorable characteristics of both aggressive and indolent lymphoma in that MCL is not curable with current standard therapy, yet patients have a shorter survival compared with other indolent histology. MCL is incurable, yet more intensive therapy does lead to longer disease-free intervals; therefore, treatment must be designed to optimize survival while maintaining quality of life. Thus, therapy should be individualized based on both the clinical behavior of the lymphoma and the patient's status. While there is no clear standard therapy that can be recommended for all patients, there may be an optimal choice for each patient. Knowledge of the expected clinical benefits and toxicities of various approaches will allow the physician and patient to appropriately select the therapy. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Blay J.-Y.,University of Lyon | Von Mehren M.,Chase Medical
Seminars in Oncology | Year: 2011

The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was based on the discovery that CML stem and progenitor cells overexpress the abnormal fusion protein kinase BCR-ABL. The prototype TKI, imatinib, selectively inhibits BCR-ABL, as well as several other kinases, including stem cell factor receptor (KIT), discoidin domain receptor (DDR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and colony-stimulating factor receptor-1 (CSF-1R). Although the management of CML improved dramatically with the introduction of imatinib, not all patients benefit from treatment because of resistance or intolerance. Consequently, research efforts have focused on developing more potent TKIs with the ability to circumvent imatinib resistance. Nilotinib, a second-generation oral TKI, was rationally designed based on the crystal structure of imatinib to be highly active against a wide range of imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutants and is approved for the treatment of newly diagnosed or imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML, and has shown superiority over imatinib in first-line treatment for newly diagnosed CML. Furthermore, the activity of nilotinib against KIT and PDGFRα has led to its evaluation in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The purpose of this review is to describe the development of nilotinib, providing a structural explanation for the differential activity of nilotinib and imatinib in GIST. Activity of nilotinib against KIT and PDGFR and emerging evidence of differences in cellular uptake between nilotinib and imatinib are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Cole M.,Chase Medical | Bromberg M.,Temple University
Oncologist | Year: 2013

Tissue factor (TF), a 47-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that initiates blood coagulation when complexed with factor VIIa (FVIIa), is expressed in severaltumortypes.TFhasbeenshown to play a role in cell signaling, inflammation, angiogenesis, as well as tumor growth and metastasis. Activation of the TF signaling pathway has been implicated in mediating the function ofmanytumor cell types and has led to TF as a potential target in the treatment of several malignancies. Formation of the TFFVIIa complex in breast cancer cells has been shown to exert an antiapoptotic effect and play a key role in tumor growth and metastasis. Breast cancer growth is suppressed by inhibition of TF-mediated PAR2 signaling,anddeficiency inPAR2delays spontaneous breast cancer development in mice. TF is expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive type of breast cancer in which there is currently a paucity of available targets. Various methods of targeting TF have been investigated and include immunoconjugates or icons, anti-TF antibodies, TF pathway inhibitors, targeted photodynamic therapy, and microRNAs. These investigationsmaygive way to promising clinical therapies for breast cancer, especially in TNBC, for which there are relatively few effective treatment options. © AlphaMed Press. Source

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