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Setiawan S.,Iowa State University | Widjaja H.,Charoen Pokphand Indonesia | Rakphongphairoj V.,Charoen Pokphand Indonesia | Jane J.-L.,Iowa State University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to understand effects of sun drying (35 °C) and machine drying (80 °C) of corn kernels followed by storage at 27 °C and 85-90% relative humidity for up to 6 months on starch structures and properties. The peak viscosity and starch hydrolysis rate using porcine pancreatic α-amylase of finely ground samples decreased with storage of both sun-dried and machine-dried corn kernels. The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of the isolated starch obtained from the sun-dried corn increased with storage time, but that from the machine-dried corn decreased. The gelatinization temperature, pasting temperature, and percentage crystallinity of the isolated starch increased but the gelatinization enthalpy-change and peak viscosity of the starch decreased with storage time. Numbers of damaged starch granules and starch granules with pinholes increased but the molecular weight of starch and long branch-chains of amylopectin decreased with storage time. The results indicated that endogenous enzyme activity remained after sun drying, which hydrolyzed starch and reduced viscosity. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Park J.-T.,Iowa State University | Park J.-T.,Chungnam National University | Suwanto A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Tan I.,Charoen Pokphand Indonesia | And 4 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

An α-amylase gene was cloned from the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus subtilis isolated from Indonesian oil palm shell waste. The gene expressed an extracellular enzyme. Optimal hydrolysis conditions for the enzyme were 70°C and pH 6.0. The specific activity of the enzyme was 16.0 kU per mg of protein, which was higher than for other thermostable amylases. Hydrolytic products of the enzyme using starch and glycogen were mainly maltohexaose and maltopentaose. The enzyme had a K m value of 0.099 mg/mL for amylopectin, more than 10 times lower than for amylose. The catalytic efficiency of the enzyme using amylopectin was 39,200 mL/mg·s and was 3,270 mL/mg·s using amylose. The enzyme liquefied corn starch at pH 5.0, which was successfully converted to glucose using commercial glucoamylase and pullulanase without pH adjustment. The enzyme has advantages for industrial applications. © 2014 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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