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Charleston, WV, United States

Organs needed for transplantation far outweigh their availability. There is minimal research regarding perioperative care of the brain-dead organ donor during the procurement procedure. Current research attributes a great deal of organ damage to autonomic or sympathetic storm that occurs during brain death. Literature searches were performed with the terms brain death, organ donor, organ procurement, anesthesia and organ donor, anesthesia and brain death, anesthesia and organ procurement, inhalational anesthetics and organ procurement, and inhalational anesthetics and brain dead. Additional resources were obtained from reference lists of published articles. The literature review showed there is a lack of published studies researching the use of inhalational anesthetics in organ procurement. No studies have been published evaluating the effect of preconditioning with inhalational agents (administering 1.3 minimal alveolar concentration of an inhalational agent for the 20 minutes before periods of ischemia) in the brain-dead organ donor population. Further studies are required to determine if administration of inhalational anesthetics reduces catecholamine release occurring with surgical stimulation during the organ procurement procedure and whether this technique increases viability of transplanted organs. Anesthetic preconditioning before the ischemic period may reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in transplanted organs, further increasing viability of transplanted organs.

Novell M.J.,Auburn University | Morreale C.A.,Charleston Area Medical Center
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence suggests there may be a link between fluoroquinolone use and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), but such an association remains unclear due to conflicting data. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between inpatient fluoroquinolone use and CDAD; secondary objectives included the relationship between CDAD and fluoroquinolone selection, duration of therapy, and route of administration, as well as the association between fluoroquinolones and CDAD complications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, case-control study of adult inpatients diagnosed with CDAD during the period of July 2007-July 2008. In total, 174 case patients were matched on a 1:1 basis with controls. A thorough assessment of all inpatient antibiotic use was conducted, including regimens administered at our institution within the previous 8 weeks. Odds ratios were calculated using univariate logistic-regression analysis. RESULTS: Use of fluoroquinolones was not significantly different between patients with CDAD and matching controls (OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.09 to 2.10; p = 0.16). No relationship was found between CDAD and the individual fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin (OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.87 to 2.12; p = 0.18), levofloxacin (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.62 to 2.22; p = 0.63), and moxifloxacin (OR 1.34; 95% CI 0.81 to 2.20; p = 0.25). Fluoroquinolone route of administration did not differ significantly between groups for patients receiving intravenous (OR 1.20; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.94; p = 0.46) or oral (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.44; p = 0.45) therapy. Complications from CDAD were not significantly increased by fluoroquinolone use (OR 1.37; 95% CI 0.72 to 2.61; p = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Inpatient administration of fluoroquinolones was not associated with CDAD at our institution. Fluoroquinolone use in patients who developed CDAD was not related to higher incidences of CDAD-related complications.

Lewis K.R.,West Virginia University | Clark C.,Access Health | Velarde M.C.,Charleston Area Medical Center
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Objective Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a well-known complication in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with a mortality rate estimated at 2%. A previous study identified that T1DM children of non-Caucasian race with Medicaid insurance had increased incidence of DKA admissions. The aim of this study is to identify the socioeconomic factors associated with DKA admissions in West Virginia (WV). Design and methods Retrospective chart review of patients admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with DKA in Charleston, WV from January 2007-December 2010. Included subjects were 1-18 years of age and those with type 1 diabetes of >6 months duration. Admission rates were compared with the normal population distribution in WV. The data collection tool included multiple socioeconomic factors and HbA1c. Results We reviewed a total of 167 patients with an admitting diagnosis of DKA; 57% were female, 43% male. Average age was 13·5 years ± 2·7; 56·4% were covered by Medicaid/Chips (WV state insurance) and 43·6% by commercial payers. 11·9% were African American and 88·1% were Caucasian. The average HbA1c was 10·85 ± 2·36%. Higher risks for DKA included those with HbA1c >14%, African American children (OR 17·4, CI 4-73) and children with Medicaid/Chips insurance (OR 9·3, 95% CI 1·1-76·2). Conclusions This study identifies socioeconomic factors associated with children admitted for DKA in WV. Patients at higher risk for DKA include those with elevated HbA1c, African American race and those covered by Medicaid/CHIPS (thereby presumed lower socioeconomic status). Findings can be utilized to identify patients at highest risk for DKA and implementation of prevention strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gupta S.N.,Charleston Area Medical Center | Gupta V.S.,Texila American University | Borad N.,P.A. College
Brain and Development | Year: 2016

"Migraine-related conditions" are probably the second most common condition after seizure encountered in pediatric neurology requiring frequent Emergency Department visits. Among migraines, migraine-related condition presents with an acute onset sign or symptom other than headache or visual aura of unknown etiology. A delay in diagnosis is a common occurrence.Previously, the authors proposed a common clinical profile and suggested that the future review should seek the applicability of the common profile in aid to clinical diagnosis of migraine-related individual syndromes.Authors describe the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the spectrum of migraine variants and beyond in children. © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology.

Aburahma A.F.,West Virginia University | Alhalbouni S.,West Virginia University | Abu-Halimah S.,West Virginia University | Dean L.S.,Charleston Area Medical Center | Stone P.A.,West Virginia University
Journal of the American College of Surgeons | Year: 2014

Background This study analyzed the impact of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) on early and late clinical outcomes of carotid artery stenting (CAS) using serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Study Design There were 313 CAS patients classified into 3 groups: normal (serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL or GFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2); moderate CRI, and severe CRI (serum creatinine ≥3 or GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2). Major adverse events ([MAE] stroke, death, and myocardial infarction) were compared for all groups. Results Using serum creatinine, perioperative stroke rates for normal, moderate, and severe CRI were: 5%, 0%, and 25%, respectively, (p = 0.05) vs 4.6%, 3.7%, and 11.1%, respectively, (p = 0.44) using GFR. The perioperative MAE rates for symptomatic patients were 9.3% and 0% (p = 0.355) and 2% and 5.9% (p = 0.223) for asymptomatic patients for normal and moderate/severe CRI, respectively, using serum creatinine vs 8.1% and 7.8%, respectively, for symptomatic patients and 2.5% and 3%, respectively, for asymptomatic patients using GFR. At a mean follow-up of 21 months, late MAE rates in normal vs moderate/severe CRI patients were 8.2% and 14%, respectively, (p = 0.247) using serum creatinine vs 6.6% and 13.3%, respectively, (p = 0.05) using GFR. Late MAE rates for symptomatic patients in normal vs moderate/severe CRI were: 8.7% vs 27%, respectively, (p = 0.061) using serum creatinine and 5.7% vs 18.8%, respectively, (p = 0.026) using GFR. Late death rate was 0.55% in normal vs 7.6% (p = 0.002) for moderate/severe CRI. Freedom from MAE at 3 years in symptomatic patients was 81% in normal and 46% in moderate/severe CRI (p = 0.0198). A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a GFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had an odds ratio of 1.6 (p = 0.222) of having a MAE after CAS. Conclusions The GFR was more sensitive in detecting late MAE after CAS. Carotid artery stenting in moderate CRI patients can be done with a satisfactory perioperative outcome; however, late death was significant. © 2014 by the American College of Surgeons.

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