Prague, Czech Republic
Prague, Czech Republic

Charles University in Prague is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe, east of France and north of the Alps. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities.Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis . Wikipedia.

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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.1.3-2 | Award Amount: 3.34M | Year: 2014

During the global financial crisis and ensuing Great Recession, economists at policy-making institutions had little choice but to augment macroeconomic models with ad-hoc assumptions and adjustments in order to provide analysis and advice for policy makers. Our consortiums proposal aims to move policy-focused macroeconomic modelling beyond this approach to the endogenous modelling of the dynamics resulting from financial risks and related decision making in banks, households, firms and public institutions. We bring together four broad lines of research to systematically develop new behavioural and institutional building blocks, integrating them in policy-focused macroeconomic models and using these models in a new framework for policy evaluation. In terms of building blocks, one line of research moves beyond the assumption of representative and homo-oeconomicus-type agents to incorporate micro-behavioural realism in decision making, while a second line of research advances the modelling of financial institutions, their fragility and the dynamics of systemic risk. The third line of research integrates these new building blocks (including a selection of those developed by researchers outside the consortium) in a new generation of policy-focused macroeconomic models. In parallel, in the fourth line of research new policy evaluation tools are developed, with a focus on robust tools aimed at containing financial contagion and boom-bust cycles, maintaining fiscal sustainability and coordinating monetary, fiscal and regulatory policies in normal and crisis regimes. The consortium comprises researchers with a strong track record in advancing the frontier on behavioural and institutional modelling, highly influential macroeconomic modellers as well as seasoned veterans of model-based monetary, fiscal, and regulatory policy evaluation and design. Consortium members have strong academic backgrounds as well as substantive practical experience at policy-making institutions.

Vesely J.,Charles University | Rios R.,University of Southampton
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Nucleophilic addition to carbon-nitrogen double bonds (imines) represents one of the most common strategies for the synthesis of amine derivatives. In order to circumvent the problem associated with low reactivity of imines in nucleophilic addition, various imines with electron-withdrawing groups at nitrogen have been studied, and many of them were successfully applied in asymmetric methodologies. Especially N-carbamoyl imines were found to be useful in the enantioselective synthesis of various organic compounds, due to their increased reactivity toward nucleophiles as well as limited difficulties connected with the removal of the carbamoyl moiety in target molecules. The aim of this review is to cover enantioselective methods based on N-carbamoyl imines, focusing on synthetically useful protocols. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Roithova J.,Charles University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

In the last decade, we have experienced massive progress in spectroscopic methods for mass-selected ions. The aim of this tutorial review is to present action spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the investigation of ionic reaction intermediates. Examples span from ultraviolet and infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of model reaction intermediates to applications of infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy (IRMPD) to intermediates directly sampled from reaction mixtures. The first example of double resonance IR-UV spectroscopy of model intermediates in an organometallic reaction is also mentioned. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Stepnika P.,Charles University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Compounds combining phosphine and carboxamide moieties in their molecules have developed virtually unnoticed into a specific class of highly structurally versatile and tuneable donor molecules finding manifold use in various fields, particularly in coordination chemistry, biomedical sciences and in catalysis. In the latter field, some phosphinoamides became the real privileged ligands and an indispensable part of a standard toolbox for synthetic chemists. This critical review aims to give an overview of the multifaceted chemistry of such compounds, paying attention to both the fundamentals and recent developments in this continuously expanding field. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Vitek L.,Charles University
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2015

Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a common but an underestimated and often neglected sign of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), especially those affecting the distal ileum. Clinically relevant BAM is most often present in patients with Crohn's ileitis and particularly in ileal-resected Crohn's disease patients. However, deterioration of bile acid (BA) metabolism occurs also in patients with IBD without ileal disease or in those in clinical remission, and the role of BAM in these patients is not well appreciated by clinicians. In a majority of cases, BAM in IBD is caused by impaired conjugated BA reabsorption, mediated by apical sodium/BA cotransporting polypeptide, localized at the luminal surface of the ileal enterocytes. As a consequence, numerous pathological sequelae may occur, including the malfunction of lipid digestion with clinical steatorrhea, impaired intestinal motility, and/or significant changes in the intestinal microflora environment. In this review, a detailed description of the pathophysiological mechanisms of BAM-related diarrhea is presented. Although BAM is present in a significant number of patients with Crohn's disease, its laboratory assessment is not routinely included in diagnostic workups, partially because of costs, logistical reasons, or the unavailability of the more sophisticated laboratory equipment needed. Simultaneously, novel findings related to the effects of the BA signaling pathways on immune functions (mediated through TGR5, cell membrane G protein-coupled BA receptor 1, nuclear farnesoid X receptor, nuclear pregnane X receptor, or nuclear vitamin D receptor) are discussed along with intestinal metabolism in its relationship to the pathogenesis of IBD. Copyright © 2014 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Flegr J.,Charles University
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2013

For a long time, a latent toxoplasmosis, the lifelong presence of dormant stages of Toxoplasma in various tissues, including the brain, was considered harmless for immunocompetent persons. Within the past 10 years, however, many independent studies have shown that this parasitic disease, with a worldwide prevalence of about 30%, could be indirectly responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths due to its effects on the rate of traffic and workplace accidents, and also suicides. Moreover, latent toxoplasmosis is probably one of the most important risk factors for schizophrenia. At least some of these effects, possibly mediated by increased dopamine and decreased tryptophan, are products of manipulation activity by Toxoplasma aiming to increase the probability of transmission from intermediate to definitive host through predation. © 2013.

The parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects about one-third of the population of developed countries. The life-long presence of dormant stages of this parasite in the brain and muscular tissues of infected humans is usually considered asymptomatic from the clinical point of view. In the past 20?years, research performed mostly on military personnel, university students, pregnant women and blood donors has shown that this ?asymptomatic' disease has a large influence on various aspects of human life. Toxoplasma-infected subjects differ from uninfected controls in the personality profile estimated with two versions of Cattell's 16PF, Cloninger's TCI and Big Five questionnaires. Most of these differences increase with the length of time since the onset of infection, suggesting that Toxoplasma influences human personality rather than human personality influencing the probability of infection. Toxoplasmosis increases the reaction time of infected subjects, which can explain the increased probability of traffic accidents in infected subjects reported in three retrospective and one very large prospective case-control study. Latent toxoplasmosis is associated with immunosuppression, which might explain the increased probability of giving birth to a boy in Toxoplasma-infected women and also the extremely high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in mothers of children with Down syndrome. Toxoplasma-infected male students are about 3?cm taller than Toxoplasma-free subjects and their faces are rated by women as more masculine and dominant. These differences may be caused by an increased concentration of testosterone. Toxoplasma also appears to be involved in the initiation of more severe forms of schizophrenia. At least 40 studies confirmed an increased prevalence of toxoplasmosis among schizophrenic patients. Toxoplasma-infected schizophrenic patients differ from Toxoplasma-free schizophrenic patients by brain anatomy and by a higher intensity of the positive symptoms of the disease. Finally, five independent studies performed in blood donors, pregnant women and military personnel showed that RhD blood group positivity, especially in RhD heterozygotes, protects infected subjects against various effects of latent toxoplasmosis, such as the prolongation of reaction times, an increased risk of traffic accidents and excessive pregnancy weight gain. The modern human is not a natural host of Toxoplasma. Therefore, it can only be speculated which of the observed effects of latent toxoplasmosis are the result of the manipulation activity of the Toxoplasma aimed to increase the probability of its transmission from a natural intermediate to the definitive host by predation, and which are just side effects of chronic infection. © 2013 Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2012.2.3-1 | Award Amount: 4.73M | Year: 2014

Socioeconomic activities such as supply and distribution of gas or electricity and the Infrastructures that generate it or transport it (power plants, gas pipes), are vital to the day-to-day functioning of any country. Due to several factors, the social and financial European situation, or supply constraints, energy & utilities have become, over the last years, a prominent issue in Europe. In this light, any serious disruption on these Critical Infrastructures (producers or transporters) could have an enormous impact on the well-being of any society. How those Critical Infrastructures can anticipate any threat with the view of avoiding potential disruptions is the main goal of ARGOS project. This project proposal will enhance the capacity of those Infrastructures in order to monitor, deter, and respond to a potential threat using Early Warning Technologies. Commonly, enhancing security capabilities entails the inherent implication of ethical aspects. In this sense, the EC is highly sensitive with this matter and its making relevant efforts to regulate this situation. As a starting point of the project idea and with the aim of being in tune with EC efforts, ARGOS has focus on the development of non-privacy invasive technologies such as vibration sensors. Regarding technologies that might be considered as non full privacy respectful such as audio sensors, this will not be developed with the aim of recording conversations (but for distinguish among animals, humans or machines); and others such as video sensors, will contemplate embedded video analytics for 1st level processing (together with a 2nd level of powerful video analytics placed in the local gateway) so they will transfer only metadata instead of images.

The invention concerns an artificial vocal fold (1) consisting of two parts, in the transversal direction the two parts are slidingly placed in opposite walls of guide frame (5) and in the longitudinal direction they are attached to attachment wall (9) of guide frame (5) on one side and to attachment wall (9) of setting frame (6) on the opposite side, whereas inner area (4) of artificial vocal fold (1) is connected to a pressure fluid source. A method of tuning the vocal cord substitution as described in the invention lies in that the basic frequency of the human vocal fold is determined, on the basis of which an initial prestressing of the artificial vocal fold is created by setting-up a distance of guide frames (5) and setting frames (6) enclosing the artificial vocal folds, followed by changing vibration characteristics of the artificial vocal fold through changing the fluid pressure in the artificial vocal fold, the vibration characteristics are monitored and compared to the demanded vibration characteristics of the human vocal fold, until similarity of the compared vibration characteristics of the artificial and human vocal fold is achieved.

Charles University | Date: 2016-03-09

The device concerns the field of medical technology and consists of glasses (1) equipped with a sealed chamber (2) with valves (3) and a pressure sensor (4) connected to the input of the filtered power (9), which is connected to the signal filter (6) connected to the analogue/digital converter (7) and further to the computer (8). The filtered input power (9) can also be connected to the ECG (10) connected to the signal filter (6) connected to the analogue/digital converter (7) and further to the computer (8). The filtered input power (9) can be also connected to the sensor (12) of the perfusion connected to the power filter (5) connected to the analogue/digital convertor (7) and further to the computer (8).Valves (3) is usually connected to the actuating moduls (14) connected to the computer (8).

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