Charles University in Prague is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe, east of France and north of the Alps. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities.Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis . Wikipedia.
Vesely J.,Charles University |
Rios R.,University of Southampton
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
Nucleophilic addition to carbon-nitrogen double bonds (imines) represents one of the most common strategies for the synthesis of amine derivatives. In order to circumvent the problem associated with low reactivity of imines in nucleophilic addition, various imines with electron-withdrawing groups at nitrogen have been studied, and many of them were successfully applied in asymmetric methodologies. Especially N-carbamoyl imines were found to be useful in the enantioselective synthesis of various organic compounds, due to their increased reactivity toward nucleophiles as well as limited difficulties connected with the removal of the carbamoyl moiety in target molecules. The aim of this review is to cover enantioselective methods based on N-carbamoyl imines, focusing on synthetically useful protocols. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Declerck P.,Charles University
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010
Legionella pneumophila, the aetiological agent of 90% of legionellosis cases, is a common inhabitant of natural and anthropogenic freshwater environments, where it resides in biofilms. Biofilms are defined as complex, natural assemblages of microorganisms that involve a multitude of trophic interactions. A thorough knowledge and understanding of Legionella ecology in relation to biofilm communities is of primary importance in the search for innovative and effective control strategies to prevent the occurrence of disease cases. This review provides a critical update on the state-of-the-art progress in understanding the mechanisms and factors affecting the biofilm life cycle of L. pneumophila. Particular emphasis is given to discussing the different strategies this human pathogen uses to grow and retain itself in biofilm communities. Biofilms develop not only at solid-water interfaces (substrate-associated biofilms), but also at the water-air interface (floating biofilms). Disturbance of the water surface can lead to liberation of aerosols derived from the floating biofilm into the atmosphere that allow transmission of biofilm-associated pathogens over considerable distances. Recent data concerning the occurrence and replication of L. pneumophila in floating biofilms are also elaborated and discussed. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Vitek L.,Charles University
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2015
Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a common but an underestimated and often neglected sign of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), especially those affecting the distal ileum. Clinically relevant BAM is most often present in patients with Crohn's ileitis and particularly in ileal-resected Crohn's disease patients. However, deterioration of bile acid (BA) metabolism occurs also in patients with IBD without ileal disease or in those in clinical remission, and the role of BAM in these patients is not well appreciated by clinicians. In a majority of cases, BAM in IBD is caused by impaired conjugated BA reabsorption, mediated by apical sodium/BA cotransporting polypeptide, localized at the luminal surface of the ileal enterocytes. As a consequence, numerous pathological sequelae may occur, including the malfunction of lipid digestion with clinical steatorrhea, impaired intestinal motility, and/or significant changes in the intestinal microflora environment. In this review, a detailed description of the pathophysiological mechanisms of BAM-related diarrhea is presented. Although BAM is present in a significant number of patients with Crohn's disease, its laboratory assessment is not routinely included in diagnostic workups, partially because of costs, logistical reasons, or the unavailability of the more sophisticated laboratory equipment needed. Simultaneously, novel findings related to the effects of the BA signaling pathways on immune functions (mediated through TGR5, cell membrane G protein-coupled BA receptor 1, nuclear farnesoid X receptor, nuclear pregnane X receptor, or nuclear vitamin D receptor) are discussed along with intestinal metabolism in its relationship to the pathogenesis of IBD. Copyright © 2014 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
Stepnika P.,Charles University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012
Compounds combining phosphine and carboxamide moieties in their molecules have developed virtually unnoticed into a specific class of highly structurally versatile and tuneable donor molecules finding manifold use in various fields, particularly in coordination chemistry, biomedical sciences and in catalysis. In the latter field, some phosphinoamides became the real privileged ligands and an indispensable part of a standard toolbox for synthetic chemists. This critical review aims to give an overview of the multifaceted chemistry of such compounds, paying attention to both the fundamentals and recent developments in this continuously expanding field. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Roithova J.,Charles University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012
In the last decade, we have experienced massive progress in spectroscopic methods for mass-selected ions. The aim of this tutorial review is to present action spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the investigation of ionic reaction intermediates. Examples span from ultraviolet and infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of model reaction intermediates to applications of infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy (IRMPD) to intermediates directly sampled from reaction mixtures. The first example of double resonance IR-UV spectroscopy of model intermediates in an organometallic reaction is also mentioned. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.