Wagga Wagga, Australia

Charles Sturt University

www.csu.edu.au
Wagga Wagga, Australia

Charles Sturt University is an Australian multi-campus public university located in New South Wales, Victoria, and the Australian Capital Territory. Established in 1989, it was named in honour of Captain Charles Sturt, a British explorer who made expeditions into regional New South Wales and South Australia.The university has campuses at Bathurst, Canberra, Albury-Wodonga, Dubbo, Goulburn, Orange, Port Macquarie, Wagga Wagga and Burlington, Ontario . It has specialist centres in North Parramatta, Manly , and Broken Hill. Courses are also delivered in conjunction with Study Group Australia in Sydney and Melbourne . CSU also has various course delivery partnerships with several TAFE institutions across the country. Wikipedia.


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Kopec M.,Charles Sturt University
Environmental Values | Year: 2017

Game theorists tend to model climate negotiations as a so-called ‘tragedy of the commons’. This is rather worrisome, since the conditions under which such commons problems have historically been solved are almost entirely absent in the case of international greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, I will argue that the predictive accuracy of the tragedy model might not stem from the model’s inherent match with reality but rather from the model’s ability to make self-fulfilling predictions. I then sketch some possible ways to dispel the tragedy, including (1) recognising some ways the assumptions of the model fail, (2) taking seriously recent work suggesting that increasing greenhouse gas emissions is not in most nations’ own self-interest, and (3) preferring alternative models like collective risk dilemmas, bargaining games, or cooperative models. © 2017 The White Horse Press.


Australia has a rich terrestrial and marine biodiversity and high species endemism. However, the oceanic continent is facing the biodiversity extinction crisis. The primary factors are anthropogenic induced environmental changes, including wildlife habitat destruction through urbanisation and predation by feral animals (e.g. red foxes and feral cats), increased severity of diseases (e.g. chytridiomycosis and chlamydia), and increased occurrence of summer heat waves and bush fires. Stress physiology is a dynamic field of science based on the studies of endocrine system functioning in animals. The primary stress regulator is the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (interrenal) axis and glucocorticoids (corticosterone and/or cortisol) provide stress index across vertebrate groups. This review paper focuses on physiological stress assessments in Australian wildlife using examples of amphibians, reptiles, birds and marsupials. I provide a thorough discussion of pioneering studies that have shaped the field of stress physiology in Australian wildlife species. The main findings point towards key aspects of stress endocrinology research, such as quantification of biologically active levels of glucocorticoids, development of species-specific GC assays and applications of stress physiology approaches in field ecology and wildlife conservation programs. Furthermore, I also discuss the importance of chronic stress assessment in wildlife populations. Finally, I provide a conceptual framework presenting key research questions in areas of wildlife stress physiology research. In conclusion, wildlife management programs can immensely benefit from stress physiology assessments to gauge the impact of human interventions on wildlife such as species translocation and feral species eradication. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.nature.com

Ross Mounce knows that when he shares his research papers online, he may be doing something illegal — if he uploads the final version of a paper that has appeared in a subscription-based journal. Publishers who own copyright on such papers frown on their unauthorized appearance online. Yet when Mounce has uploaded his paywalled articles to ResearchGate, a scholarly social network likened to Facebook for scientists, publishers haven’t asked him to take them down. “I’m aware that I might be breaching copyright,” says Mounce, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Cambridge, UK. “But I don’t really care.” Mounce isn’t alone in his insouciance. The unauthorized sharing of copyrighted research papers is on the rise, say analysts who track the publishing industry. Faced with this problem, science publishers seem to be changing tack in their approach to researchers who breach copyright. Instead of demanding that scientists or network operators take their papers down, some publishers are clubbing together to create systems for legal sharing of articles — called fair sharing — which could also help them to track the extent to which scientists share paywalled articles online. Free article sharing is embedded in the way science works, says Mandy Hill, managing director of academic publishing at Cambridge University Press, UK. “It is important that, as publishers, we accept this and find ways to support fair sharing of content whilst ensuring the sustainability of the research publishing business,” she says. But open-access advocates say that publishers’ plans for fair sharing will not satisfy scientists who might object to — or be unaware of — copyright restrictions, and who increasingly expect to be able to make their papers available online for free. The practice of uploading paywalled papers online seems to have ballooned in recent years — in large part because of the popularity of sites such as ResearchGate, where millions of scientists share and view articles. Publishers are watching carefully. In April, a publisher-commissioned survey of more than 5,000 scientists by the research-impact service Kudos in Wheatley, UK, suggested that 57% had uploaded their own work to scholarly communication networks; 79% of those said they checked copyright policies before they did so, but 60% thought they should be allowed to upload their articles regardless of publisher or journal policies (see ‘Copyright concerns’). No-one knows the full extent to which researchers share paywalled papers online, but a study this February gave a hint. Information scientist Hamid Jamali at Charles Sturt University in Wagga Wagga, Australia, picked 500 papers at random from ResearchGate, and found that 392 were not open-access articles (H. R Jamali Scientometrics http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2291-4; 2017). Some were versions that publishers allow authors to share, such as a peer-reviewed, unedited manuscript or a preprint. But more than 50% of the uploaded versions infringed publishers’ copyright, Jamali found. A spokesperson for ResearchGate, which is based in Berlin, says that the company explicitly asks users to comply with publishers’ policies when uploading papers, and to make sure they are not breaching copyright. But it says it has no way to monitor the extent to which users might upload unauthorized papers. Some scholarly publishers have reacted to the issue with litigation threats. In late 2013, for instance, science publisher Elsevier sent 3,000 notices under the US Digital Millennium Copyright Act to the scholarly network Academia.edu and other sites, demanding that they take down papers that breached Elsevier’s copyright. The notices were also passed to individual scientists. Major infringements still prompt a legal reaction: Elsevier is currently suing Sci-Hub, a site that shares millions of paywalled research papers. Yet, when it comes to dealing with papers shared on social networks, some publishers are pulling back from litigation, says Matt McKay, a spokesperson for the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers (STM) in Oxford, UK. “Legal action and take-down notices are no sustainable manner to remove unauthorized content from social research networks. Rather than relying on such blunt tools, we want to talk with these sites and find long-term solutions to the problem,” he says. In a 21 March teleconference organized by the STM, science publishers discussed efforts to let scientists share full texts of papers more easily without breaching copyright. (Springer Nature, which publishes Nature, was one of the companies involved; Nature’s news team is editorially independent of its publisher.) Publishers contacted by Nature’s news team generally declined to discuss their evolving policies on article sharing in detail, but fair sharing typically means providing free links to the final versions of read-only, non-downloadable articles hosted on journal sites. Some publishers — including Springer Nature and Wiley — have adopted software that allows their authors to generate such links. An education drive in 2015 kicked off the fair-sharing discussion: the STM, following consultations with publishers and librarians, developed a website called ‘How can I share it?’ (www.howcanishareit.com) that details what different subscription journals allow in terms of archiving and sharing copyrighted articles online. (In general, many publishers permit the online sharing of peer-reviewed manuscripts, but not the final full text.) Scientists may not like publishers’ systems for fair sharing, says Stevan Harnad, a web-science and cognition expert at the University of Southampton, UK, who encourages researchers to self-archive versions of articles online. “So publishers want to track what is happening? There is no reason they should retain such control,” he says. In the long run, thinks Mounce, science will move to a system in which researchers can do what they want with their papers. “Only open access will cleanly and clearly solve the highly artificial ‘problem’ of not being allowed to share research with others,” he says. But for the publishing industry, the question of how to enable sharing of paywalled articles without breaching copyright or alienating authors will only grow in significance, says Joseph Esposito, an independent publishing consultant in New York City who works with science publishers and scholarly societies. So far, he says, journal publishers don’t seem to have lost much revenue because of scholarly networks. But publishers will have to adopt new strategies now to avoid “substantial losses” in the near future, he says.


Lloyd A.,Charles Sturt University
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2010

Purpose: Information literacy is a rich and complex social information practice that is constructed according to specific practical understandings, rules and teleoaffective features which characterise a social site or setting. This paper aims to explore the philosophical and theoretical perspective of practice theory, in particular, the ontological work of Schatzki. These perspectives are to be used to frame an understanding of the features of information literacy as sociocultural practice. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical perspective is introduced to examine the concept of information literacy practice by framing this analysis through a site ontology developed by Schatzki. Sociocultural and practice theory are employed in this exploration of information literacy as sociocultural practice and provide a framework for architecture of information literacy practice. Findings: Information literacy can be understood as a critical information practice which is organised and arranged through the site of the social, rather than as a reified and decontexualised set of skills. Research limitations/implications: Framing information literacy research through site ontology and the use of a practice perspective has implications for further research into information literacy and for the development of pedagogic practices related to information literacy instruction Originality/value: The paper offers an alternate way of framing information literacy by introducing the concepts related to practice theory. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Culas R.J.,Charles Sturt University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

International attention is focused on finding ways to reduce emissions from deforestation because of the emerging concerns over climate change. However the causes of deforestation are rooted in current economic and development paradigms. The causes of deforestation also vary across different geographical regions and have implications for the forest transition. Attempts to reach an international agreement on curbing deforestation have achieved little success despite over 30. years of UN negotiations. New initiatives from REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) could provide financial incentives to curb deforestation. Hence, alternative development paths for forest cover changes and forest transition are analyzed for the REDD policy within the framework of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for deforestation. The EKC models are estimated for geographical regions of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The results based on the panel data analysis of 43 countries, covering the period 1970-1994, provides evidence that an inverted U-shaped EKC fits for Latin America and Africa, while a U-shaped EKC applies to Asia. The results also indicate that strengthening agricultural and forestry sector policies are important for curbing deforestation. The EKC models' estimates could provide guidance for decisions on financing the REDD policy as specific to each region. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Robergs R.A.,Charles Sturt University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Research into the rate of whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) kinetics during exercise increments to low- to moderate-intensity steady-state exercise was originally based on the theory of linear first-order VO2 kinetics, implying that the VO2 response to steady-state exercise increments is a mono-exponential response of the same time constant (tau, π) across all steady-state intensities. Despite the acceptance of this theory for more than 30 years, early research from the 1980s documented an increasing π with increasing steady-state exercise intensity, and recent research has confirmed such results. Today, such evidence has led to retraction of the theory of linear firstorder VO2 kinetics. This history, revealing the premature acceptance of a theory, and subsequent scientific investigation using improved research design, instrumentation and data processing, has important implications for the fragility of scientific theories and the need for continual testing of theories in the search for facts and not prematurely accepted constructs. This review provides historical evidence for a critical reappraisal of the theory of linear first-order VO2 kinetics and presents data to show the need for changes in the data-processing 'standards' of the discipline to improve measurement of instantaneous VO2 kinetics and the time to steady state. For example, to date, no study of VO2 kinetics has quantified and statistically analysed the time to steady state. Furthermore, the instability of π across different exercise increments, and for the same increment from different baseline VO2 demand, prevents π from being a valid measure of VO2 kinetics for different exercise conditions. The concept of quantifying kinetics from a total non-linear response, when no other field of kinetics pursues this methodology, also raises concern for the methods and models used to interpret steady-state VO2 kinetics. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Patent
Charles Sturt University | Date: 2014-11-20

A method for minimising or preventing the induction of stress-related or stress-induced inappetance or inanition in an animal selected for a marketing or management practice.


Patent
MEAT & LIVESTOCK AUSTRALIA Ltd and Charles Sturt University | Date: 2014-11-20

The invention described in this specification relates to the prevention and treatment of alkaloid-induced toxicosis in pasture grazing animals.


Loftus S.,Charles Sturt University
Medical Education | Year: 2012

Context Clinical reasoning lies at the heart of medical practice and has been the subject of scholarly inquiry and research for some decades. However, despite this, it is still poorly understood. This is largely because current theoretical models are limited in their explanatory power because they are based on particular assumptions of what constitutes clinical reasoning. Discussion A variety of ways of articulating and conceptualising clinical reasoning can provide us with richer means of understanding what is involved in clinical encounters. A dialogical approach to clinical reasoning is proposed. Dialogism provides a vocabulary that encourages us to integrate insights from different frameworks in ways that combine the strengths of each. Dialogism also puts a focus on the complex ways in which we use language in clinical reasoning to generate meaning. The complexity of language includes narrative, rhetoric and metaphor. Conclusions A dialogical approach does not require us to discard the findings of earlier theories about clinical reasoning, but provides us with a means of integrating what we know in ways that are more useful in the reality of clinical practice. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS.2012.1.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 1.72M | Year: 2013

Delivering European Renewal relies heavily on the advancement of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) that is, research and innovation which is: - is ethically acceptable, - is sustainable by avoiding significant adverse effects and - drives towards the common good, i.e. societal desirability. To achieve maximum impact where it is most needed, ProGReSS concentrates on the underexplored and least converging part of RRI, namely achieving societal desirability. The project will link existing international networks of RRI from all continents with European partners and policy-makers, policy-advisors, funders, industry and non-governmental organisations. In interactive discussions with relevant societal actors as well as innovators, we will move RRI debates from the national or regional to the global level and achieve the following objectives: 1. Link existing international networks of RRI with relevant societal actors on a global scale to focus innovation on societal desirability. 2. Complete a major fact-finding mission comparing science funding strategies and innovation policies in Europe, the US, China, Japan, India, Australia, and South Africa. 3. Advocate a European normative model for RRI globally, using constitutional values as a driver to inform societal desirability. 4. Develop a strategy for fostering the convergence of regional innovation systems at the global level.

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