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Bolsover F.E.,Charles Dent Metabolic Unit | Murphy E.,Charles Dent Metabolic Unit | Cipolotti L.,National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery | Werring D.J.,University College London | Lachmann R.H.,Charles Dent Metabolic Unit
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2014

Background: Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, leads to multi-organ dysfunction, including cerebrovascular disease and psychological disorders. However, the prevalence and pattern of associated cognitive dysfunction is not well understood. Objectives: To investigate whether there is reliable evidence for neuropsychological impairment in patients with Fabry disease and which cognitive domains are affected. To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with depression in patients with Fabry disease. Method: Qualitative systematic review of the literature of studies conducting neuropsychological assessment or measuring the prevalence of depression in adults with Fabry disease using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines where appropriate. Results: There is some evidence for neuropsychological impairment in Fabry disease in executive functioning, information processing speed and attention, with preservation of: general intellectual functioning, memory, naming, perceptual functioning and global cognitive functioning. Prevalence rates of depression in Fabry disease ranged from 15 % to 62 %, with the largest study to date reporting a prevalence rate of 46 %. The most common factor associated with depression was neuropathic pain, both directly and indirectly by affecting social and adaptive functioning. Conclusion: Our review suggests that Fabry disease may be associated with a characteristic pattern of cognitive deficits and a high prevalence of psychological disorders such as depression but highlights the limited available data. Exploring the nature of cognitive impairment in Fabry disease using standardised neuropsychological assessment, brain imaging and measures of depression is an important task for future research. © 2013 SSIEM and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Doyle C.M.,University College London | Channon S.,University College London | Orlowska D.,University College London | Lee P.J.,Charles Dent Metabolic Unit
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2010

Long-term follow-up studies of individuals with galactosaemia have indicated that despite a strict galactose-free diet, cognitive functioning is often below average. This study was designed to examine the neuropsychological profile of individuals with galactosaemia in terms of IQ, memory, executive functioning, perceptual abilities and educational outcome. Twenty-eight people with classic galactosaemia and no comorbid neurological or psychiatric disorder took part. A battery of clinical neuropsychological tests was performed. Overall, findings were consistent with previous literature in showing galactosaemia to be linked to below-average functioning across a range of cognitive measures when mean scores were examined. Thus, the mean overall scores for verbal and performance IQ, memory, and executive functions were in the low average range. However, a range of ability was represented across individuals, with some achieving average or above scores and education to A level or above. Further work using longitudinal methodology is needed to address the issue of factors mediating any cognitive weaknesses and to establish the extent of any possible decline in functioning over time. © 2010 SSIEM and Springer.

Murphy E.,Charles Dent Metabolic Unit
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2015

An increasing number of women with rare inherited disorders of metabolism are becoming pregnant. Although, in general, outcomes for women and their children are good, there are a number of issues that need to be considered. Currently, limited specific guidance on the management of these conditions in pregnancy is available. Prepregnancy counselling with information on inheritance, options for reproduction, teratogenicity risk, potential impact on maternal health and long-term health of children should be offered. With appropriate specialist management, the teratogenic risk of conditions such as maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) can be eliminated, and the risk of metabolic decompensation in disorders of energy metabolism or intoxication significantly reduced. Multidisciplinary management, and close liaison between obstetricians and other specialists, is required for those women in whom there is cardiac, renal, respiratory, joint or other organ involvement. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lachmann R.,Charles Dent Metabolic Unit
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Historically PKU was a common genetic cause of severe learning difficulties and developmental delay, but with the introduction of newborn screening and early dietary management, it has become a treatable disease and people born with PKU should now have IQs and achievements similar to their peers. Dietary treatment, however, involves lifestyle changes that pervade most aspects of daily life for an individual and their family. A simple pharmacological treatment for PKU would have a great appeal. Sapropterin hydrochloride is a synthetic form of tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor for PAH. A proportion of mutant PAH enzymes show enhanced activity in the presence of pharmacological doses of sapropterin and, for some patients with milder forms of PKU, sapropterin can effectively lower plasma phenylalanine levels. This article discusses the potential place for sapropterin in the management of PKU and how this expensive orphan drug is being integrated into patient care in different healthcare systems. © The Author(s), 2011.

Lachmann R.H.,Charles Dent Metabolic Unit
Current Opinion in Pediatrics | Year: 2011

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for type 1 Gaucher has been highly successful. ERT is now available for other lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) but none of these highly expensive treatments has had the same efficacy. This review explores why these newer treatments have failed to live up to expectations and how future products might be made more effective. RECENT FINDINGS: In Gaucher, the target cells for ERT are macrophages, which are efficiently accessed by intravenously injected recombinant enzyme. The target tissues in other LSDs receive much lower doses of enzyme and intravenous ERT does not enter the brain at all. Uptake of recombinant enzyme is via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR). Recent work has looked at improving the efficiency of enzyme delivery to tissues by altering both the ligand on the infused enzyme and the expression of the M6PR on cells. For delivery to the central nervous system, intrathecal routes of administration have been explored. SUMMARY: Work in tissue culture and in animal models has shown increased efficiency of enzyme delivery and clinical trials of second-generation products and novel delivery systems are now underway. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

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