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Huezo-Diaz P.,University of Geneva | Uppugunduri C.R.S.,University of Geneva | Tyagi A.K.,University of Geneva | Krajinovic M.,Clinical Pharmacology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2014

Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well established but complex treatment option for malignant and non-malignant disorders in pediatric patients. Most commonly used myeloablative and non-myeloablative conditioning regimens in children comprise alkylating agents, such as busulfan (BU) and cyclophosphamide. Inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of BU can result in altered conditioning of the patient and therefore lead to relapse or rejection due to under exposures, or occurrence of toxicities due to over exposures. With the introduction of the intravenous formulation of BU, this variability has been reduced but still cannot be fully predicted. Inter and intra-individual variability of BU kinetics is more common in children compared to adults and toxicity of BU based regimens is still a concern. It has been hypothesized that some of this variability in BU pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes, especially the toxicity, might be predicted by genetic variants of enzymes involved in the metabolism of BU. This review intends to summarize the studies performed to date on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of BU based conditioning, specifically in relation to children. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Uppugunduri C.R.S.,University of Geneva | Rezgui M.A.,Charles Bruneau Cancer Center | Diaz P.H.,University of Geneva | Tyagi A.K.,University of Geneva | And 7 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2014

Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) likely have a role in the oxidation of intermediate metabolites of busulfan (Bu). In vitro studies to investigate the involvement of these enzymes are cumbersome because of the volatile nature of the intermediate metabolite tetrahydrothiophene (THT) and the lack of sensitive quantitation methods. This study explored the association between the CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and FMO3 genotypes and sulfolane (Su, a water soluble metabolite of Bu) plasma levels in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The relationship between these genotypes and the effectiveness of myeloablative conditioning was also analyzed. Sixty-six children receiving an intravenous Bu-based myeloablative conditioning regimen were genotyped for common functional variant alleles in CYP2C9 (*2 and *3), CYP2C19 (*2 and *17), FMO3 (rs2266780, rs2266782 and rs1736557) and CYP2B6 (*5 and *9). The plasma levels of Bu and its metabolite Su were measured after the ninth Bu dose in a subset of 44 patients for whom plasma samples were available. The ratio of Bu to Su was considered the metabolic ratio (MR) and was compared across the genotype groups. Higher MRs were observed in CYP2C9*2 and *3 allele carriers (mean±s.d.: 7.8±3.6 in carriers vs 4.4±2.2 in non-carriers; P=0.003). An increased incidence of graft failure was observed among patients with an MR>5 compared with those with MR values <5 (20% vs 0%; P=0.02). In contrast, a significantly higher incidence of relapse and graft failure (evaluated as event-free survival) was observed in patients with malignant disease who carried CYP2B6 alleles with reduced function on both chromosomes compared with carriers of at least one normal allele (100% vs 40%; P=0.0001). These results suggest that CYP2C9 has a role in the oxidation reactions of THT and indicate that it may be possible to predict the efficacy of Bu-based myeloablative conditioning before HSCT on the basis of CYP genotypes and Bu MRs. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Ansari M.,Charles Bruneau Cancer Center | Ansari M.,University of Geneva | Lauzon-Joset J.-F.,Charles Bruneau Cancer Center | Vachon M.-F.,Charles Bruneau Cancer Center | And 12 more authors.
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2010

Busulfan (BU) is a key compound in conditioning myeloablative regimens for children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are wide interindividual differences in BU pharmacokinetics, which increase the risk of veno-occlusive disease, graft rejection and disease relapse. As BU is mainly metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST), it is hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in GST genes may explain in part the variability in BU pharmacokinetics. We analyzed polymorphisms in GSTA1 (C-69T, A-513G, G-631T, C-1142G), GSTM1 (deletion) and GSTP1 (A1578G, C2293T) genes in 28 children undergoing HSCT. All patients had individualized dosing based on pharmacokinetics after the first dose of intravenous BU. GSTM1-null individuals had higher drug exposure (PCmax = 0.008; PAUC = 0.003; PCss = 0.02) and lower clearance (PCL = 0.001). Multivariate regression models showed that, other than the drug dose and age, the GSTM1 genotype was the best predictor of first-dose pharmacokinetic variability. GSTM1-null patients also received lower cumulative BU doses (P=0.02). No association was found between BU exposure and major GSTA1 or GSTP1 gene variants. In children, GSTM1 polymorphism seems to modify BU pharmacokinetics after intravenous drug administration. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Ansari M.,University of Geneva | Huezo-Diaz P.,University of Geneva | Rezgui M.A.,Charles Bruneau Cancer Center | Marktel S.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | And 8 more authors.
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2016

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only curative therapeutic option for the treatment of thalassemia. In spite of the high cure rate, HSCT can lead to life-threatening adverse events in some patients. Busulfan (Bu) is a key component of the conditioning regimen prior to HSCT. Inter-individual differences in Bu pharmacokinetics (PK) are hypothesized to influence Bu efficacy and toxicity. Since Bu is mainly metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST), we investigated the relationship of GSTA1 and GSTM1 genotypes with first-dose PK and HSCT outcomes in 44 children with thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia major. All children received a myeloablative conditioning regimen with IV Bu. Association analysis revealed a relationship between GSTA169C>T (or haplotype ∗A/∗B) and first Bu dose PK that was dependent on sex and Pesaro risk classification (PRC). Among female patients and patients with PRC I-II, homozygous individuals for the GSTA1T-69 allele defining haplotype ∗B, had higher Bu exposure and lower clearance (P≤0.01). Association with HSCT outcomes showed that patients with the GSTM1 null genotypes had higher occurrence of regimen-related toxicity (P=0.01). These results suggest that GST genotypes could be useful to tailor the first Bu dose accordingly to improve HSCT outcome. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Ansari M.,Charles Bruneau Cancer Center | Ansari M.,University of Geneva | Theoret Y.,Charles Bruneau Cancer Center | Theoret Y.,Clinical Pharmacology Unit | And 16 more authors.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:: Intravenous (IV) busulfan (Bu) combined with therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dosing is associated with better event-free survival (EFS), lower transplant-related mortality. But optimal target steady-state concentration (Css) of Bu in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between Css of Bu and clinical outcomes in children receiving Bu before HSCT. METHODS:: This study includes 75 children receiving IV Bu in 16 doses, with first dose assigned based on age. Bu first-dose pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from Bu plasma concentrations measured at 6 time points by high-performance liquid chromatography. Doses were adjusted at the fifth dose to a target Css of 600-900 ng/mL. Cumulative incidence of overall survival (OS), EFS, transplant-related mortality, acute graft-versus host disease (aGVHD), and other toxicities in relation to Css of Bu were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves in univariate and CoxÊs proportional hazards model in multivariate analysis. RESULTS:: After the first dose, median Css was 578 (325-1227) ng/mL. Forty-one patients had Bu IV dose increased by > 10%. Neutrophil and platelet recoveries, grade 2-4 aGVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) incidences were 90%, 91%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. Relapse incidence was 33%. Incidence of veno-occlusive disease, hemorrhagic cystitis, and lung toxicities were 13%, 24%, and 7%, respectively. OS and EFS were 70% and 58%. First-dose Bu Css >600 ng/mL was associated with a higher NRM (P < 0.001) and grade 2-4 aGVHD (P = 0.04), a lower EFS (P < 0.001), and OS (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: This study demonstrated a significant association between the first-dose pharmacokinetics of Bu and NRM, OS, and EFS. Bu therapeutic drug monitoring provides information that potentially influences outcomes of HSCT in pediatric patients. © 2014 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Source

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