Characterization Laboratory

Madīnat Sittah Uktūbar, Egypt

Characterization Laboratory

Madīnat Sittah Uktūbar, Egypt

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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Penn State University in the US plans to offer residential and online master’s degrees in additive manufacturing (AM) and design beginning in the autumn of 2017. The residential Master of Science in Additive Manufacturing (MSAMD) and online Master of Engineering in Additive Manufacturing (MEngAMD) will be 30-credit degrees offered to graduate students to provide the analytical and practical skills required to use AM technologies, the university said. The program will integrate graduate coursework across multiple departments, including the Departments of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Science and Mechanics, School of Engineering Design, Technology, and Professional Programs, and Materials Science and Engineering, and the Colleges of Engineering and Earth and Mineral Sciences. All students enrolled in the program will be able to work in Penn State’s AM laboratory, the Center for Innovative Materials Processing through Direct Digital Deposition (CIMP-3D) as well as the Material Characterization Laboratory in the Millennium Sciences Complex and the Factory for Advanced Manufacturing Education in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering. Students will gain experience working with polymer as well as metallic additive manufacturing systems. For more information about the degrees, please email AMDprogram@psu.edu. This story uses material from Penn State with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.


News Article | June 7, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

This precision medicine trial continues with a new study entry process that casts a wider net for patients through routine genomic testing by Caris Life Sciences, Foundation Medicine, Inc., and 2 academic labs The rapid pace of patient enrollment in the National Cancer Institute-Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH or EAY131) precision medicine cancer treatment trial will result in the study reaching its goal of sequencing the tumors of 6,000 patients in June, nearly two years sooner than expected. The ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (ECOG-ACRIN), which is leading this signal-finding trial under the sponsorship of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), reports that wide-scale adoption throughout the NCI National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) caused the unprecedented rate of patient enrollment. "NCI-MATCH's availability through more than 1,100 academic cancer centers and community hospitals reflects the broad interest in the promise of genomics, and the ability of such a study to deliver that promise to the community," said ECOG-ACRIN study co-chair Peter J. O'Dwyer, MD, University of Pennsylvania. The more than 1,100 trial sites are all members of the research groups in the NCTN that design and lead trials focused on adult cancers: the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group, NRG Oncology, and SWOG. "An important discovery in the patients we have tested so far shows us that every tumor gene abnormality we are studying is less common than expected in this study population, ranging from 3.47 percent to zero," said ECOG-ACRIN study chair Keith T. Flaherty, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center. "This finding adds to the ground-breaking nature of the NCI-MATCH trial, which is shedding new light on the fact that for several of the treatment arms to reach their 35-patient goal, we really need to look at tens of thousands of patients," he said. The NCI-MATCH trial had a goal to ensure that 25 percent of patients enter with rare or uncommon cancers, defined as those other than colorectal, breast, non-small cell lung, or prostate. "We are surprised that over 60 percent of patients came into the trial with less common types of cancer, which far surpassed our goal," said Dr. O'Dwyer. "We find it exciting that this high proportion of less common malignancies opens options for advances in these cancers." Another contribution to the rapid accrual rate was the availability--within the trial--of tumor gene sequencing for every patient who submitted tissue for testing. The NCI provided funding to reimburse participating sites for biopsy procedures and paid for the tumor gene sequencing performed by the trial's four-laboratory network, assembled especially for this trial. Tumor sequencing within the trial is capped at 6,000 patients for the purpose of determining study eligibility. For the next several weeks, patients who registered for tumor screening before the deadline of May 22, 2017, will complete the process. Then, tumor testing within the trial will come to an end. Even though tumor gene testing will no longer be done within the trial, the trial is not ending. It continues with a new study entry process that casts a wider net for patients through collaborations with commercial and academic laboratories. "We have found a way to move the trial toward real-world genomic analysis of tumors," said Dr. O'Dwyer. "It's becoming more common for oncologists to order genomic tumor testing to guide clinical care for our patients. This is an optimal time to align the trial with this current practice as a strategy to proactively seek out additional patients." To complete patient enrollment to multiple treatment arms, ECOG-ACRIN is implementing collaboration agreements formed by the NCI with Caris Life Sciences® and Foundation Medicine, Inc., two of the largest private-sector molecular testing laboratories. Collectively, these labs conduct sequencing for tens of thousands of people with cancer. The collaboration agreements between the NCI and commercial labs are for Caris Life Sciences and Foundation Medicine, Inc. to notify any physician at any of the more than 1,100 clinical sites participating in NCI-MATCH when the genomic test they ordered to guide clinical care (Caris Molecular Intelligence®, FoundationOne®, or FoundationOne® Heme) finds results that could make a patient eligible for one of several NCI-MATCH treatments. "These new collaborations offer a paradigm shift, as the new goal for the trial is to find patients, rather than patients having to find the trial," said Dr. Flaherty. "We look forward to incorporating this trial into the independent, routine testing already being done out in the community as soon as possible." The new study entry process is available to physicians at any participating site who order testing directly from the commercial laboratories. For participating sites, visit the NCI website. The labs do not specifically test patients for the NCI-MATCH trial. These labs will look for tumor gene abnormalities being studied in NCI-MATCH as part of their normal testing procedures. When a treating physician at a site that is participating in the trial orders genomic sequencing independently (outside of the trial) to guide clinical care for his or her patients, the labs will look for trial matches in these patients. If found, the lab will include the information in the broader genomic testing report as just one potential treatment option. The oncologist can take the information into consideration when discussing treatment options with his or her patients. If a patient registers for NCI-MATCH, the physician will evaluate them further to determine if they meet the eligibility criteria for the specific treatment arm, and if so, the patient will be able to enroll for treatment. The trial's expert panel will review every patient case, as it has done since the start of the trial. Trial leaders chose these labs because of their capabilities in three areas: 1. A mechanism that can review tens of thousands of patient cases is necessary to identify small subsets with tumor gene abnormalities being studied in the NCI-MATCH trial. These labs are already testing a high volume of patients. 2. Trial leaders have fully vetted the commercial assays and confirmed that the comprehensive and highly-validated genomic profiles are particularly sensitive to the tumor gene abnormalities being studied in the trial. 3. Collaboration requires that the labs provide assay results in a format that can be uploaded into MATCHbox, the trial's informatics system that generates treatment assignment information for the trial's panel of experts to review. Two academic laboratories already involved in the trial will perform testing on their own patients, using their institutional assays. These are The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The new study entry process will ramp up with a demonstration project focusing on 19 arms. To help the trial adjust to the high volume of patient cases, the labs will initially report on only 19 of the 26 treatment arms still seeking patients. Each of the 19 arms addresses a tumor gene abnormality that occurred in 1.5 percent or fewer patients tested thus far. The potential for the outside labs to report on the remaining open treatment arms will be considered later in the summer once the demonstration project is complete. To learn the status of each treatment arm, visit http://www. . NCI-MATCH is a phase II precision medicine trial that seeks to determine the effectiveness of treatment that is directed by genomic profiling in patients with solid tumors, lymphomas (cancer in the cells of the immune system), or myelomas that have progressed following all standard treatments expected to prolong overall survival or rare cancer types for which there is no standard treatment. The study attempts to demonstrate that matching certain drugs or drug combinations in adults whose tumors have specific gene abnormalities will effectively treat their cancer, regardless of its type. Such discoveries could be eligible to move on to larger, more definitive trials. NCI-MATCH is unique because of its size and scope. It explores far more tumor gene abnormalities and drugs than any other precision medicine cancer treatment trial. It includes a large number of cancer types where most other trials address a single cancer. The drugs and drug combinations chosen for the trial have either been approved by the FDA for specific cancer types or are still being tested in other clinical trials but have shown some effectiveness against tumors with a particular gene alteration(s). "There continues to be a high level of interest in the scientific potential of NCI-MATCH among patients, oncologists, and the pharmaceutical companies that make their drugs available for testing as part of the trial," said Dr. Flaherty. "The drugs and drug combinations we are exploring in NCI-MATCH are being studied for the first time across many cancer types." The trial's main eligibility requirements for patients remain unchanged with the new process for study entry. The trial is for adults 18 years of age and older with any type of solid tumor, lymphoma (cancer in the cells of the immune system), or myeloma that has returned or gotten worse after standard systemic therapy (oral or intravenous). Patients may also be eligible if they have a rare type of cancer for which there is no standard treatment. It will take several weeks for all patients to have their biopsies, submit them for testing, and receive their gene sequencing results from the NCI-MATCH trial labs. By late summer, study leaders plan to complete their analysis of the genetic, disease, and demographic characteristics of the 6,000-patient cohort and submit the data to a peer-reviewed medical journal. Data could be published in early 2018. Reporting on individual arms will occur once there is complete response and toxicity data for at least 31 patients per arm. Each trial arm requires about eight months of follow-up after it completes enrollment, to determine if responses are durable, plus time for finalizing data and analysis. Secondary analyses will include examination of response by disease histology, individual variants, and other factors. The trial's laboratory network will confirm test results from the commercial and academic laboratories on patients' archived specimens. These results will be returned to the clinician, but will not affect or delay eligible patients' ability to enroll for treatment. The network includes the ECOG-ACRIN Central Biorepository and Pathology Facility at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center as the central intake facility for biospecimens and accompanying documentation. Four CLIA-approved molecular diagnostics laboratories are involved. They include the NCI Molecular Characterization Laboratory (Mickey Williams, PhD), Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Integrated Diagnostics (A. John Iafrate, MD, PhD), MD Anderson Cancer Center Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory (Stanley R. Hamilton, MD), and Yale University Tumor Profiling Laboratory (Jeffrey Sklar, PhD). The ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (ECOG-ACRIN) co-designed NCI-MATCH with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and is leading the trial, a role that involves coordinating the genomic testing and supporting nearly 1,100 cancer centers and community hospitals that are participating in the trial with training, laboratory services, trial assignments, biostatistical support, data management, auditing, quality control, and public awareness. ECOG-ACRIN is a membership-based scientific organization that designs and conducts cancer research involving adults who have or are at risk of developing cancer. ECOG-ACRIN comprises nearly 1,100 member institutions in the United States and around the world. Approximately 12,000 physicians, translational scientists, and associated research professionals from the member institutions are involved in Group research, which is organized into three scientific programs: Cancer Control and Outcomes, Therapeutic Studies, and Biomarker Sciences. ECOG-ACRIN is supported primarily through NCI research grant funding, but also receives funding from private sector organizations through philanthropy and collaborations. It is headquartered in Philadelphia, Pa. For more information, visit ecog-acrin.org or call 215.789.3631.


News Article | July 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Today investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG) announced the opening of enrollment for a unique precision medicine clinical trial. NCI-COG Pediatric Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (Pediatric MATCH) is a nationwide trial to explore whether targeted therapies can be effective for children and adolescents with solid tumors that harbor specific genetic mutations and have progressed during or after standard therapy. Pediatric MATCH will incorporate more than eight different study drugs, each targeting a predefined set of genetic mutations, to match patients with therapies aimed at the molecular abnormalities in their tumors. The study was developed and will be led jointly by NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health, and COG, part of the NCI-sponsored National Clinical Trials Network. Pediatric MATCH is a phase 2 trial with sub-studies (arms) for each targeted drug being investigated. It will open with approximately six treatment arms, expanding to eight or more. A similar trial for adults, NCI-MATCH, began enrolling adult patients in August 2015 and is also matching patients to treatments based on the genetic mutations in their tumors. Pediatric MATCH is a separate trial for children and adolescents ages 1 to 21 who have solid tumors--including non-Hodgkin lymphomas, brain tumors, and histiocytoses--that no longer respond to standard treatment or have recurred after treatment. "Pediatric MATCH is a very special trial," said Douglas R. Lowy, M.D., NCI acting director. "There aren't any other cancer trials of this scale exploring targeted treatments for children whose cancers have specific genetic abnormalities. Precision medicine trials like Pediatric MATCH have the potential to accelerate progress in identifying more effective treatments for children with cancer." The trial has two enrollment steps. Each patient will initially enroll for a screening study, in which a sample of his or her relapsed tumor will undergo DNA and RNA sequencing to detect genetic abnormalities that could be targeted by one or more of the drugs being studied. Archived tumor samples can be used if they were obtained after the tumor progressed following initial treatment. If there is a genetic abnormality identified in the tumor and a drug in Pediatric MATCH that targets that abnormality, the patient can then enroll in the corresponding treatment arm if he or she meets the eligibility criteria. Pediatric MATCH will use a single sequencing test to screen for many molecular abnormalities at once. The test, which is also being used for the adult NCI-MATCH trial, was developed by the Molecular Characterization Laboratory at the NCI-sponsored Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) in Frederick, Maryland. The latest version of this test looks for alterations in more than 160 genes associated with cancer. To ensure quality control, biopsy specimens from all patients will be sent to a single location, the COG Biopathology Center at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, for DNA and RNA processing. The sequencing analysis for Pediatric MATCH will be done at two laboratories that carried out sequencing for adult NCI-MATCH: the FNLCR and MD Anderson Cancer Center. Cancer mutations that match one of the drugs being studied are expected to be found in only about 10 percent of tumors from children and adolescents with cancer. The trial investigators, therefore, project that they will screen 200 to 300 patients a year, for a total of 1,000 patients screened, to identify patients potentially eligible for each of the sub-studies. Patients with a matched drug will be able to receive treatment as long as their tumors remain stable in size or get smaller. At least 20 patients will be targeted for enrollment in each arm, and additional treatment arms will be added as the trial progresses. "Pediatric MATCH is a cutting-edge trial in many ways," said COG chair Peter C. Adamson, M.D., of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "It will bring molecular analysis, coupled to a portfolio of new targeted agents, to children and adolescents with relapsed cancer across the United States. Importantly, it will also help us learn more about relapsed cancer in pediatric patients, catalyzing research aimed at developing better treatments." The drugs being used in Pediatric MATCH are all investigational (experimental) agents in children and contributed by pharmaceutical companies that have partnered with NCI to support this study. "This trial would not have been possible without the enthusiastic support of the partnering pharmaceutical companies, as evidenced by their willingness to provide targeted agents for this trial," said NCI study co-chair Nita Seibel, M.D., of NCI's Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis. "Some of the agents included have not previously been tested in children, so this trial will provide broader access to targeted agents for children and adolescents." Although most of the DNA mutations identified in study patients will be present only in cancer cells and not elsewhere in the body, some may have been inherited. For this reason, in Pediatric MATCH "we will also look at whether mutations found in tumors are detected in blood samples and hence were inherited," said COG study co-chair Will Parsons, M.D., Ph.D., of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. "This will allow us to provide the treating physician with guidance for the patient's family regarding the need for formal genetic testing, counseling, and follow-up care." Patients found not to have a matched drug may, with the help of their oncologists, be able to enroll in other studies available through the COG Developmental Therapeutics Program, Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium, New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy consortium, and pharmaceutical trials located through trials.cancer.gov. Enrollment in Pediatric MATCH will be available at children's hospitals, university medical centers, and cancer centers across the United States that are part of COG. Sites will access the trial under the protocol identification APEC1621 via the NCI Cancer Trials Support Unit. For more information on NCI-Pediatric MATCH, go to http://www. . About the National Cancer Institute (NCI): NCI leads the National Cancer Program and the NIH's efforts to dramatically reduce the prevalence of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training and mentoring of new researchers. For more information about cancer, please visit the NCI website at cancer.gov or call NCI's Contact Center (formerly known as the Cancer Information Service) at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237). About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit nih.gov. About the Children's Oncology Group (COG): COG, a member of NCI's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), is the world's largest organization devoted exclusively to childhood and adolescent cancer research. COG unites more than 9,000 experts in childhood cancer at more than 200 leading children's hospitals, universities, and cancer centers across North America, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Europe in the fight against childhood cancer. Today, more than 90 percent of the 14,000 children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States are cared for at COG member institutions. COG's mission is to improve the cure rate and outcome for all children with cancer. For more information, visit childrensoncologygroup.org.


News Article | January 20, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

Gardeners often use sheets of plastic with strategically placed holes to allow their plants to grow but keep weeds from taking root. Scientists from UCLA’s California NanoSystems Institute have found that the same basic approach is an effective way to place molecules in the specific patterns they need within tiny nanoelectronic devices. The technique could be useful in creating sensors that are small enough to record brain signals. Led by Paul Weiss, a distinguished professor of chemistry and biochemistry, the researchers developed a sheet of graphene material with minuscule holes in it that they could then place on a gold substrate, a substance well suited for these devices. The holes allow molecules to attach to the gold exactly where the scientists want them, creating patterns that control the physical shape and electronic properties of devices that are 10,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. A paper about the work was published in the journal ACS Nano. “We wanted to develop a mask to place molecules only where we wanted them on a stencil on the underlying gold substrate,” Weiss says. “We knew how to attach molecules to gold as a first step toward making the patterns we need for the electronic function of nanodevices. But the new step here was preventing the patterning on the gold in places where the graphene was. The exact placement of molecules enables us to determine exact patterning, which is key to our goal of building nanoelectronic devices like biosensors.” With the advance, making nanoelectronic and nanobioelectronic devices could be much more efficient than current methods of molecular patterning, which use a technique called nanolithography. Weiss said that could be especially useful for scientists who are trying to place molecular sensors on the surface of gold or other nanomaterials that are used for their sensitivity and selectivity but difficult to work with because of their size. Neurosensors that could measure brain cell and circuit function in real time could reveal new insights into diseases like autism and depression. Ultimately, Weiss said, the researchers hope to be able to stimulate individual brain circuits using sensors so they can predict key chemical differences between function and malfunction in the brain. This knowledge could then be used to develop targets for new generations of treatments for neurological diseases. The paper’s other authors were John Thomas, Shan Jiang, Nathan Weiss, and Xiangfeng Duan of UCLA, and Matthew Gethers and William Goddard III of Caltech. Research for the study was conducted in the Electron Imaging Center for Nanomachines and the Nano and Pico Characterization Laboratory, which are both parts of the California NanoSystems Institute. The research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Caltech EAS Discovery Fund, and UCLA.


ROCKVILLE, Md., Oct. 26, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Rexahn Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NYSE MKT:RNN), a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing next generation targeted therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, today announced that it has been issued a patent from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) covering RX-21101 for the targeted delivery of docetaxel directly into cancer tumor cells using a nano-polymer conjugate technology. "We are pleased to expand our intellectual property covering our unique and innovative targeting technologies in preclinical development. RX-21101 is the first proof of concept candidate from our Nano-Polymer-Drug Conjugate Systems (NPDCS). Our nanotechnology drug conjugate candidates address the large and immediate market for widely used chemotherapies, and they are a complement to our portfolio of proprietary compounds currently in clinical development,” commented Rexahn's CEO, Peter D. Suzdak, Ph.D. RX-21101 is a nano-polymer conjugate with docetaxel bound to the polymer backbone together with a targeting moiety. The targeting moiety directs the bound drug to the cancer cell, thereby bypassing healthy cells leading to enhanced efficacy with the potential for reduced side effects. Once inside the cancer cell, the complex is metabolized yielding the free anticancer compound.  It is the combination of the nano-polymer and the targeting moiety that makes Rexahn’s technology unique and increases the precision of delivery into the cancer cell. RX-21101 has been selected by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory for its preclinical development program in 2015. In addition, Rexahn has issued patents covering other nano-polymer conjugate systems including the carboxypropyl-methacrylamide (CPMA) nano-polymer-drug conjugate platform which offers several major advantages over existing drug conjugate systems including the ability to target the delivery of anticancer agents to cancer cells, high water solubility, increased bioavailability and the flexibility to covalently bind multiple structurally diverse classes of compounds to its chemical backbone. Rexahn is actively pursuing other potential drug conjugate candidates with our CPMA platform for the treatment of solid tumors. RX-21101 is a chemotherapeutic that combines Rexahn’s nano-drug delivery and targeting technology with docetaxel, a widely used FDA-approved chemo drug. RX-21101 may be more effective and better tolerated than docetaxel and preclinical studies have shown the potential to reduce peripheral neuropathy, a debilitating side effect of docetaxel.  Potential indications include breast, ovarian, prostate and lung cancer. Rexahn Pharmaceuticals Inc. (NYSE MKT:RNN) is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to developing novel, best-in-class therapeutics for the treatment of cancer.  The Company's mission is to improve the lives of cancer patients by developing next generation cancer therapies that are designed to maximize efficacy while minimizing the toxicity and side effects traditionally associated with cancer treatment. Rexahn's product candidates work by targeting and neutralizing specific proteins believed to be involved in the complex biological cascade that leads to cancer cell growth. Preclinical studies show that certain of Rexahn's product candidates may be effective against multiple types of cancer, drug resistant cancers, and difficult-to-treat cancers, and others may augment the effectiveness of current FDA-approved cancer treatments.  The Company has a broad oncology pipeline that includes three anti-cancer compounds currently in clinical development: RX-3117, Supinoxin™, and Archexin®, and a novel nano-polymer conjugate platform technology that targets the delivery of FDA approved chemotherapies directly into cancer tumor cells.  For more information about the Company and its oncology programs, please visit www.rexahn.com. To the extent any statements made in this press release deal with information that is not historical, these are forward-looking statements under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements about Rexahn's plans, objectives, expectations and intentions with respect to cash flow requirements, future operations and products, enrollments in clinical trials, the path of clinical trials and development activities, and other statements identified by words such as "will," "potential," "could," "can," "believe," "intends," "continue," "plans," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "may," other words of similar meaning or the use of future dates. Forward-looking statements by their nature address matters that are, to different degrees, uncertain. Uncertainties and risks may cause Rexahn's actual results to be materially different than those expressed in or implied by Rexahn's forward-looking statements. For Rexahn, particular uncertainties and risks include, among others, understandings and beliefs regarding the role of certain biological mechanisms and processes in cancer; drug candidates being in early stages of development, including in preclinical development; the ability to initially develop drug candidates for orphan indications to reduce the time-to-market and take advantage of certain incentives provided by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; and the ability to transition from our initial focus on developing drug candidates for orphan indications to candidates for more highly prevalent indications. More detailed information on these and additional factors that could affect Rexahn's actual results are described in Rexahn's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including its most recent annual report on Form 10-K and subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. All forward-looking statements in this news release speak only as of the date of this news release. Rexahn undertakes no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.


Abstract: Gardeners often use sheets of plastic with strategically placed holes to allow their plants to grow but keep weeds from taking root. Scientists from UCLA’s California NanoSystems Institute have found that the same basic approach is an effective way to place molecules in the specific patterns they need within tiny nanoelectronic devices. The technique could be useful in creating sensors that are small enough to record brain signals. Led by Paul Weiss, a distinguished professor of chemistry and biochemistry, the researchers developed a sheet of graphene material with minuscule holes in it that they could then place on a gold substrate, a substance well suited for these devices. The holes allow molecules to attach to the gold exactly where the scientists want them, creating patterns that control the physical shape and electronic properties of devices that are 10,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. A paper about the work was published in the journal ACS Nano. “We wanted to develop a mask to place molecules only where we wanted them on a stencil on the underlying gold substrate,” Weiss said. “We knew how to attach molecules to gold as a first step toward making the patterns we need for the electronic function of nanodevices. But the new step here was preventing the patterning on the gold in places where the graphene was. The exact placement of molecules enables us to determine exact patterning, which is key to our goal of building nanoelectronic devices like biosensors.” With the advance, making nanoelectronic and nanobioelectronic devices could be much more efficient than current methods of molecular patterning, which use a technique called nanolithography. Weiss said that could be especially useful for scientists who are trying to place molecular sensors on the surface of gold or other nanomaterials that are used for their sensitivity and selectivity but difficult to work with because of their size. Neurosensors that could measure brain cell and circuit function in real time could reveal new insights into diseases like autism and depression. Ultimately, Weiss said, the researchers hope to be able to stimulate individual brain circuits using sensors so they can predict key chemical differences between function and malfunction in the brain. This knowledge could then be used to develop targets for new generations of treatments for neurological diseases. The paper’s other authors were John Thomas, Shan Jiang, Nathan Weiss and Xiangfeng Duan of UCLA, and Matthew Gethers and William Goddard III of Caltech. Research for the study was conducted in the Electron Imaging Center for Nanomachines and the Nano and Pico Characterization Laboratory, which are both parts of the California NanoSystems Institute. The research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Caltech EAS Discovery Fund and UCLA. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Nashed R.,American University in Cairo | Nashed R.,Characterization Laboratory | Girgis E.,National Research Center of Egypt | Shehata A.,Characterization Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, ACP | Year: 2012

The Effect of introducing CuInSe2 (CIS) Nanocrystals with the electrolyte on the photocurrent response of DSSCs was investigated showing great enhancement in optical switching and electrical stability of DSSCs by improving the electrolyte's reduction rate. © OSA 2012.


Kalpana Nayak I.,Characterization Laboratory | Ramana Rao S.V.,Characterization Laboratory | Kapoor K.,Characterization Laboratory
Journal of Testing and Evaluation | Year: 2015

The crystallographic texture of fabricated components from zirconium alloy has a significant effect on their in-service performance because of texture-dependent properties. Quantitative characterization of this texture in various zirconium alloy tube samples was conducted using pole figure technique and Kearns methodology. Corresponding texture parameters were calculated for both the methods and were found to be similar for samples with strong radial texture. However, the same was not true for samples with transverse texture because of a defocusing error coming due to the geometry of a conventional pole figure technique. Hence, a modified method for such samples by pole figure method was developed which, in addition, solved the difficulties associated with both sample preparation and experiment for the Kearns method or complete pole figure method to a great extent. Copyright © 2014 ASTM International.

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