Orange, CA, United States

Chapman University

www.chapman.edu
Orange, CA, United States

Chapman University is a private, non-profit university located in Orange, California, affiliated with the Christian Church . Chapman University encompasses seven schools and colleges: Lawrence and Kristina Dodge College of Film and Media Arts, Wilkinson College of Humanities and Social science, George L. Argyros School of Business and Economics, Schmid College of Science & Technology, College of Performing Arts, Dale E. Fowler School of Law and College of Educational Studies. For the 2010–11 academic year, Chapman University enrolled 6,398 students. Wikipedia.


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Piper W.H.,Chapman University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

The study of habitat selection has long been influenced by the ideal free model, which maintains that young adults settle in habitat according to its inherent quality and the density of conspecifics within it. The model has gained support in recent years from the finding that conspecifics produce cues inadvertently that help prebreeders locate good habitat. Yet abundant evidence shows that animals often fail to occupy habitats that ecologists have identified as those of highest quality, leading to the conclusion that young animals settle on breeding spaces by means not widely understood. Here, we report that a phenomenon virtually unknown in nature, natal habitat preference induction (NHPI), is a strong predictor of territory settlement in both male and female common loons (Gavia immer). NHPI causes young animals to settle on natal-like breeding spaces, but not necessarily those that maximize reproductive success. If widespread, NHPI might explain apparently maladaptive habitat settlement.


Funk J.L.,Chapman University
Conservation Physiology | Year: 2013

While invasive plant species primarily occur in disturbed, high-resource environments, many species have invaded ecosystems characterized by low nutrient, water, and light availability. Species adapted to low-resource systems often display traits associated with resource conservation, such as slow growth, high tissue longevity, and resource-use efficiency. This contrasts with our general understanding of invasive species physiology derived primarily from studies in high-resource environments. These studies suggest that invasive species succeed through high resource acquisition. This review examines physiological and morphological traits of native and invasive species in low-resource environments. Existing data support the idea that species invading low-resource environments possess traits associated with resource acquisition, resource conservation or both. Disturbance and climate change are affecting resource availability in many ecosystems, and understanding physiological differences between native and invasive species may suggest ways to restore invaded ecosystems. © The Author 2013.


Piper W.H.,Chapman University
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2011

Behavioral ecologists generally agree that animals derive benefits from familiarity with spaces that they inhabit or visit, yet site familiarity is rudimentary or lacking in most models of habitat selection. In this review, I examine evidence for the occurrence of site familiarity and its fitness benefits, describe the difficulty of measuring site familiarity, note its omission from the influential ideal free and ideal despotic models, and use a literature search to test an assumption of the ideal models that has become widespread in habitat selection theory: that animals behave without regard for site familiarity. I find little support for such "familiarity blindness" in vertebrates. Next I discuss how the study of public information has drawn attention away from site familiarity and point out that both kinds of information are likely to be important in habitat selection. I proceed to examine current models of initial settlement (exploration and settlement of prebreeders on first territories) and optional resettlement (site fidelity or dispersal by established breeders following a period of prospecting) and find that the latter include only basic forms of site familiarity. Hence, I develop the concept that an inhabited space holds a unique "private value" to an animal based on its familiarity with the space and offer a simple model for optional resettlement based on private value that generates several novel predictions, including site fidelity based on cumulative breeding site familiarity and high site fidelity among species with complex territories. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ECOSYSTEM STUDIES | Award Amount: 195.54K | Year: 2017

Peatlands are a type of wetlands common in many northern landscapes. These ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. As a result of natural decomposition processes, peatlands contribute a significant fraction of methane gas to the atmosphere and could release additional methane in response to changes in environmental conditions. Our current understanding of peatland methane dynamics is built upon the premise that methane is produced through two different microbial processes in natural ecosystems. However, there is evidence that a third pathway of methane production has been overlooked, and could be important. Using a combination of field measurements and laboratory experiments, the research team will investigate the potential role of methane produced through the previously unexplored pathway in peatlands in Minnesota. This research will also provide opportunities to train undergraduate students how to do research at Chapman University, a primarily undergraduate institution.

The central goal of this EAGER project is to explore the possibility that methylotrophic substrates (e.g., methanol, monomethylamine and dimethylsulfide) serve as important sources of methane in northern peatland ecosystems. This project will address 4 research questions in 3 peatlands in northern Minnesota. (1) Can methylotrophic substrates be processed by methanogens? To investigate the potential for methane production through methylotrophic pathways, the researchers will use 13C-labeled substrates as isotopic tracers in laboratory incubations. (2) Are methylotrophic substrates available in situ? The researchers will develop analytical techniques to measure concentrations of methylotrophic substrates in peatland porewater. (3) What are the rates of methylotrophic methanogenesis over a growing season? The researchers will combine measurements of methane production from 13C-labeled tracers and concentrations of methylotrophic substrates to estimate rates of methylotrophic methanogenesis across the growing season in the second year of this project. (4) What microbial communities are responsible for methylotrophic methanogenesis? The researchers will analyze the microbial communities potentially responsible for methylotrophic methane production. Given the importance of peatlands in the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to have a complete mechanistic understanding of methane cycling in these habitats. If previously understudied methylotrophic substrates are important in peatland methane cycling, it would require reconsideration of carbon cycle models at local to global scales.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SOFTWARE & HARDWARE FOUNDATION | Award Amount: 241.39K | Year: 2015

Software performance is critical for the success of a software
project. Performance bugs are programming errors that slow down
execution. Many recent techniques have been proposed to detect
various performance bugs. However, there are still many performance
bugs that cannot be detected by existing techniques. Furthermore, a
crucial and practical aspect of performance bugs has not received the
attention it deserves: How likely are developers to fix a detected
performance bug?

To significantly improve software performance, this project will
develop a set of novel techniques that focus on a class of performance
bugs that are very likely to be fixed by developers, specifically on
performance bugs that have non-intrusive fixes. Performance bugs that
have non-intrusive fixes are very likely to be fixed by developers
because the benefits of the fix (i.e., code speedup) clearly outweigh
the drawbacks of the fix (e.g., introducing new correctness bugs,
breaking good software engineering practices, development time and
effort, etc). This project will address three fundamental challenges:
(1) What performance bugs have non-intrusive fixes and what are their
defining characteristics? (2) How to automatically detect performance
bugs and how to establish that their fixes will be non-intrusive? (3)
How to automatically fix some of the detected performance bugs? This
work will broaden our understanding of an understudied yet important
aspect of software performance and will provide automated solutions to
improve software performance.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: ECOSYSTEM STUDIES | Award Amount: 30.06K | Year: 2015

Nitrogen (N) is a necessary nutrient for plant growth. The atmosphere consists mainly of nitrogen gas (N2), and this form of N is extremely stable. Most plants cant directly access N2 and their rate of growth is instead limited by the presence of available N in the soil. Therefore, some species of trees have evolved a symbiosis with a special class of bacteria that fix atmospheric N2 and convert it into a plant-available form. These nitrogen-fixing trees have abundant access to nitrogen, but there is a cost to this symbiotic association: these trees provide carbon to bacteria and therefore sacrifice some of their own growth to maintain the symbiosis. As a result, nitrogen-fixing trees comprise only a small proportion of tree species on earth. In theory, nitrogen fixation is only advantageous in ecosystems that have very limited amounts of N in the soil. N-limited forests tend to be more common at high latitudes than at lower latitudes (the tropics and subtropics), but curiously, N-fixing trees are actually most common at lower latitudes. In fact, N-fixing trees are ten times less abundant at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes. Why is this the case? This proposal will test a potential explanation. The differential regulation hypothesis states that variation in the degree to which N-fixing trees regulate N fixation can explain the pattern. N-fixing trees that rapidly adjust N-fixation to meet N demand should be more abundant, as is the case in lower-latitude forests. In contrast, species that cannot regulate N-fixation should be less abundant, as observed in higher-latitude forests. This project will measure the extent to which the regulation of N-fixation actually varies across latitudes, as well as the metabolic costs of regulating N-fixation and the relationship of these costs to temperature. The results will provide a long sought after explanation for the distribution of N-fixing trees on earth, which is an essential component of the growth of forests worldwide.

The project will involve a field experiment in forests at different latitudes as well as two greenhouse experiments. The field experiment will fertilize forests with labeled N to vary the degree of N limitation and measure the regulation of N fixation in the field. The experimental locations are Oregon (with Alnus rubra), New York (with Robinia pseudoacacia), and Hawaii (with Morella faya, Casuarina equisetifolia, Acacia koa, and Sophora chrysophylla) and span the latitudinal threshold for N-fixing tree abundance (35° N). There are two major types of N fixing symbioses (actinorhizal and rhizobial) and the field sites were chosen to capture both. The greenhouse experiments will test a larger number of species and involve more highly controlled conditions. The greenhouse experiments will also evaluate how quickly plants can regulate N fixation. The experiments and laboratory analyses will involve participation of Title 1 high school students as well as undergraduate and graduate students in New York, California and Oregon.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Environmental Chemical Science | Award Amount: 270.00K | Year: 2016

In this project, funded by the Environmental Chemical Sciences Program in the Division of Chemistry at the National Science Foundation, Professor Christopher Kim of Chapman University is performing research that involves detailed characterization of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates. These characterization studies include batch and real-time metal ion adsorption/desorption experiments and synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopic methods to improve predictive modeling of metal uptake/retention to nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides. Nanoparticles of inorganic mineral phases are widespread in water-based environmental systems. Natural and synthetic nanoparticles are highly effective in remediation strategies for contaminated waters, such as those that result from metal ore mining activities. This research develops models to predict metal fate and transport in natural waterways. These studies maximize metal retention and reduce metal mobility in contaminated systems. Broader impacts of this work include the creation of independent research opportunities for undergraduate, community college, and high school students (targeting females, under-represented minorities, and low-income populations), providing students with experiences using national synchrotron user facilities, and incorporating new findings in nanoparticle research to the undergraduate curricula in environmental and inorganic chemistry. High school chemistry and environmental science teachers are engaged in the research methods and outcomes through on-campus visits and lesson development.

The fate and speciation of metal ion species sorbed to aggregated nanoparticles are largely unknown. Metal sorption to nanoaggregates serves as an important means of natural attenuation and provides considerable potential for the effective remediation of metal-contaminated surface aqueous systems. Specifically, with increasing aggregation state, salinity, and time, metal uptake declines due to loss of reactive surface area but metal retention may increase due to trapping of sorbed ions onto/into the more complex confined aggregate structures. This project advances our understanding of the fundamental processes that control the retention and sequestration of metal ions onto nanoscale iron oxyhydroxide particles and their aggregates. The research impacts the emerging field of environmental nanoscience, particularly the role that nanoscale particles play in the remediation of metal-contaminated sites.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 200.78K | Year: 2015

An award is made to Chapman University to acquire a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer for research in wetland carbon cycling. The acquisition of a CRDS analyzer will increase opportunities for research training by leveraging a number of existing mentoring and teaching programs at Chapman University, an undergraduate-serving institution in Orange, California. These include mentored undergraduate research; integration into an existing Ecosystem Ecology laboratory course; use in an established research training program for local high school students; and training of community college students supported by an ongoing NSF REU-Site program. These training efforts will continue a successful track record of engaging females and underrepresented minorities in cutting edge scientific research using world-class instrumentation.

Wetlands are among the most important ecosystems in the global carbon cycle because of their large soil carbon pools and high methane emissions. Given their importance in the global carbon cycle, wetlands have been important drivers of climate change in the past. A pressing question in global change biogeochemistry remains whether a significant fraction of the large carbon pool in wetland soils will be released as methane in future climates. A more complete mechanistic understanding of the complex microbial processes that mediate wetland carbon cycling is necessary to accurately model the response of wetland decomposition and methane dynamics to ongoing global change. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for exploring wetland carbon cycling and can provide important insights into the production and consumption of methane in wetlands. The acquisition of a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer will allow for the measurement of stable isotopic composition of carbon dioxide and methane. The acquired instrument will provide important insights into the processes of decomposition, methane production and methane consumption in wetland ecosystems to better understand their role in the global carbon cycle.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: EDUCATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES | Award Amount: 347.33K | Year: 2014

This summer REU-Site program in the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Chapman University (Orange, CA) will annually provide 10 students selected exclusively from 2-year community colleges with the opportunity to engage in research projects related to earth and environmental issues from the regional to global scale. Through the program, they will provide an under-served student population with hands-on, interdisciplinary research experiences and enhance the recruitment and retention of under-represented students into STEM fields. They will partner with multiple local community colleges that serve ethnically diverse communities and lack scientific research facilities. Faculty mentors include biologists, chemists, and geoscientists with active undergraduate research labs at Chapman. Through participation in cutting-edge research with faculty mentors working at the forefront of their respective disciplines, students will engage in complex scientific studies on topics including the sources, transport, and transformation pathways of pollutants, environmental impacts on intertidal organisms, and carbon sequestration in wetlands. In addition to research, students will participate in group activities including pre-experience training workshops, seminars with local speakers on environmental careers/issues, weekly group meetings/presentations within their research groups, university life and academic success workshops, a research poster presentation session, and a post-experience evaluation assessment.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CAREER: FACULTY EARLY CAR DEV | Award Amount: 519.75K | Year: 2015

The vision behind advanced cyberinfrastructure (CI) is that its development, acquisition, and provision will transform science and engineering in the 21st century. However, CI diffusion is full of challenges, because the adoption of the material objects also requires the adoption of a set of related behavioral practices and philosophical ideologies. Most critically, CI-enabled virtual organizations (VOs) often lack the full range of organizational capacity to effectively integrate and support the complex web of objects, practices, and ideologies as a holistic innovation.

This project examines the various manifestations of CI related objects, practices, and ideologies, and the ways they support CI implementation in scientific VOs. Using grounded theory analysis of interviews and factor analysis of survey data, this project will develop and validate a robust framework/measure of organizational capacity for CI diffusion. The projects empirical focus will be the NSF-funded Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE; https://www.xsede.org/), a nationwide network of distributed high-performance computing resources. Interviews and surveys will solicit input from domain scientists, computational technologists, and supercomputer center administrators (across e-science projects, institutions, and disciplines) who have experience with adopting and using CI tools within the XSEDE ecosystem. The project will generate a series of capacity building strategies to help VOs increase the organizational capacity necessary to fully adopt CI. Findings will help NSF and other federal agencies to improve existing and future CI investments. This project may also have implications for open-source and commercial technologies that harness big data for complex simulations, modeling, and visualization analysis.

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