Mexico City, Mexico
Mexico City, Mexico

Universidad Autónoma Chapingo is an agricultural college located in Texcoco, Mexico State in Mexico. The university is a federally funded public institution of higher education. It offers technical and full bachelor’s degrees as well as having scientific and technological research programs. Many of these programs are related to agriculture, forestry and fishing.The school began as the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura which was founded in 1854 at the Monastery of San Jacinto in Mexico City. The school was moved in 1923 to the President Álvaro Obregón ex Hacienda of Chapingo. Postgraduate studies were added in 1959. The school received autonomous status in 1978. It offers courses of study in Forestry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Industries, Irrigation, Rural Sociology and more.The main attraction for visitors at this school is its murals. In the old hacienda chapel, which is now the University Ceremonies Room is a mural by Diego Rivera called “Tierra Fecundada” . This work was begun in 1924 and completed in 1927. Covering an area of over 700m2, the work divides into three parts. The left panel depicts man’s struggle to have land, the right panel shows the evolution of Mother Nature and the center shows the communion between man and earth. It is considered to be one of Rivera’s best works. More recently, the school acquired an unnamed mural by Luis Nishizawa. This work was produced during his last year at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plasticas of UNAM and depicts the agriculture of Mexico in both the past and the present. The work is six meters high, nine meters wide and in the form of a triangle. It is placed in a building that is commonly called “El Partenon.”The school is also home to the National Museum of Agriculture. The 2,000 m2 facility presents the development of agriculture in Mexico from the pre-Hispanic past to the present day. The collection has about 4,000 objects relating to technology, agronomy including farming implements and photographs by Hanz Gutmann. Wikipedia.


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Urban greening, defined as growing vegetation in urban areas requires a citizen’s and technician’s environmental awareness and behavior. The aim of this research was to define the variables for an environmental behavior for urban greening. Surveys to agriculture postgraduate students in Mexico were carried out in 2010 and 2014, to analyze the student’s behavior for an urban environment protection. A significance analysis revealed the citizen characteristics for an urban environmental concern. Then, a logit analysis defined the variables for an urban environmental concern and activity of the students. The variables obtained for an environmental activity were: i) the year of analysis, ii) the environmental concern and iii) the environmental education. The most common environmental actions were measures that save money and/or without any cost. It was concluded that for the implementation of the urban greening in Mexico by the students/ technicians it is needed to reduce the price of the techniques and to develop adapted and feasible technologies. © 2016, Universidad del Zulia. All rights reserved.


Cruz-Hipolito H.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Rojano-Delgado A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Dominguez-Valenzuela J.A.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Heredia A.,University of Malaga | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2011

Glyphosate tolerance by Clitoria ternatea, Neonotonia wightii and Amaranthus hybridus was studied in whole plants from Mexico. Experiments in a controlled growth chamber showed both legumes to be highly tolerant of glyphosate, with and ED50 values of 600. 18 g ae ha-1 for C. ternatea and 362. 94 g ae ha-1 for N. wightii. On the other hand, A. hybridus was highly susceptible to the herbicide (ED50 = 42. 22 g ae ha-1). Shikimate accumulation peaked 96 h after treatment in the tolerant plants and the susceptible weed under 500 g ae ha-1 glyphosate. The shikimic acid content of whole leaves was 4. 0 and 5. 0 times higher in the susceptible weed than in N. wightii and C. ternatea, respectively. 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation tests showed A. hybridus to absorb 30% more herbicide than the legumes 24 h after glyphosate foliar application. 14C-glyphosate translocation as measured by quantified autoradiography revealed increased translocation of the herbicide to untreated leaves and roots in A. hybridus relative to the two legumes. The cuticular surface of A. hybridus exhibited very low wax coverage relative to the epicuticular surface of N. wightii and, especially, C. ternatea. No significant degradation of glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid and glyoxylate metabolites was detected among the tolerant leguminous plants or the susceptible weed population. These results indicate that the high glyphosate tolerance of Clitoria ternatea and Neonotonia wightii is mainly a result of poor penetration and translocation of the herbicide to apical growing points in their plants. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-1-02 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2010

Jatropha curcas shows a big promise towards sustainable and affordable biofuels. Several groups are working independently towards development of both agrosystems and high quality germplasm of Jatropha, and downstream processing and biodiesel markets. The challenges are to make the big promises come true: high oil yield, low competition with food crops, use in various agrosystems from monoculture plantations, to mixed cropping and use in hedges around agricultural fields. JATROPT aims at linking high quality research groups and companies that are now operating in different continents in order to achieve a large synergy in research and development of jatropha as a biofuel crop. In five Workpackages (Breeding, Genetic tools, Sustainable Agrosystems, Demonstrating and Dissemination), the following aims are pursued: 1) Achieve a world wide germplasm collection of Jatropha curcas, molecularly characterised in order to classify the collection into groups with similar genetic backgrounds; evaluation of elite germplasm of this collection in Asia, Africa and Latin-America; linking segregating population based on parents from different parts of the world and creating a global Jatropha linkage map. 2) Develop genetic information and marker tools (genetics of toxic/low toxic trait, branching patterns; disease resistance) to speed up the breeding process. 3) Develop agrosystems that yield sustainable and affordable biofuels - and interesting uses of the co-products (biomass/protein residues after oil extraction), with a focus on Pro Poor development and on designing systems in which competion for food and fuel can be minimised; 4) Demonstration of the potential of local/regional use of produced biofuels to increase agricultural and general economic productivity will be investigated. 5) Achieve dissemination of knowledge on quality of germplasm, on genetics and sustainable agrosystems setting up distribution of combined packages of agronomic guidelines and germplasm.


Cruz-Garcia E.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Hahn-Schlam F.F.,Road Mexico Texcoco Chapingo
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2015 | Year: 2015

The automation of greenhouse allows occupying less labor and at the same time having a better control of the microclimate inside the greenhouse among other variables. An important aspect to optimize the environment inside the greenhouse as well as irrigation systems is the collection of data, records of the behavior of the microclimate and is able to monitor in real time to distance. For this was the development of an electrical-electronic formed by modules with monitoring functions of some environmental variables, control, local transmission and transmission to the Ethernet. The team is provided with sensors to acquire commercial environment temperature and soil, relative humidity and soil pH and EC of the solution of irrigation controlled by a module based on Arduino mega 2560 which in addition to acquiring and transmitting these data by radio frequency (RF) stored on a memory card (SD) and show them in a display (LCD 16X2) Another module receives over a distance the information of the greenhouse and through Ethernet module connected to the internet raises the data in real time by putting them available to WEB browsers using IP address. Copyright © (2015) by the American Society of Agricultural & Biological Engineers All rights reserved.


Cruz-Hipolito H.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Osuna M.D.,Finca la Orden Valdesequera Research Center | Dominguez-Valenzuela J.A.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Espinoza N.,Agricultural Research Institute INIA | De Prado R.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Whole-plant response of two suspected resistant Avena fatua biotypes from Chile and Mexico to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides [aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP), cyclohexanedione (CHD), and pinoxaden (PPZ)] and the mechanism behind their resistance were studied. Both dose-response and ACCase enzyme activity assays revealed cross-resistance to the three herbicide families in the biotype from Chile. On the other hand, the wild oat biotype from Mexico exhibited resistance to the APP herbicides and cross-resistance to the CHD herbicides, but no resistance to PPZ. Differences in susceptibility between the two biotypes were unrelated to absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the herbicides. PCR generated fragments of the ACCase CT domain spanning the potential mutations sited in the resistant and susceptible biotypes were sequenced and compared. A point mutation was detected in the aspartic acid triplet at the amino acid position 2078 in the Chilean biotype and in isoleucine at the amino acid position 2041 in the Mexican wild oat biotype, which resulted in a glycine triplet and an asparagine triplet, respectively. On the basis of in vitro assays, the target enzyme (ACCase) in these resistant biotypes contains a herbicide-insensitive form. This is the first reported evidence of resistance to pinoxaden in A. fatua. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Cruz-Hipolito H.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Dominguez-Valenzuela J.A.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Osuna M.D.,Finca La Orden Valdesequera Research Center | De Prado R.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background and aims: In this study, we describe the molecular, physiological and agronomic aspects involved in the resistance to acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase inhibiting herbicides (ACCase) observed in one biotype of Phalaris paradoxa from Mexico. Methods: Dose-response Assays: The herbicide rate inhibiting plant growth of each biotype by 50% with respect to the untreated control, ED 50. Enzyme purification and ACCase assays to determine herbicide rate inhibiting the enzyme of each biotype by 50% with respect to the untreated control, I 50. Absorption and Translocation Assays with [ 14C]diclofop-methyl. Metabolism of diclofop-methyl and its metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Study of target site resistance mechanism at enzyme and molecular levels. Results: In this work, it has been studied the whole-plant response of Phalaris paradoxa biotypes from Mexico resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides: aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP), cyclohexanedione (CHD) and phenylpyrazoline (PPZ), and the mechanism behind their resistance were studied. To analyse the resistance mechanism, the enzyme ACCase activity was investigated. Results from biochemical assays indicated a target-site resistance as the cause of reduced susceptibility to ACCase inhibitors. The absorption, translocation and metabolism were similar between R and S biotypes. A point mutation never described before was detected within the triplet of glycine at the amino acid position 2096 (referring to EMBL accession no. AJ310767) and resulted in the triplet of serine. This new mutation could explain the loss of affinity for the ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. Conclusions: We found a new mutation, which had never been described before. This mutation was detected within the triplet of glycine at the amino acid position 2096. This new mutation confers cross-resistance to three different chemical groups of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Thompson R.B.,University of Almeria | Gallardo M.,University of Almeria | Rodriguez J.S.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Sanchez J.A.,University of Almeria | Magan J.J.,Estacion Experimental Las Palmerillas
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Free-draining soilless culture is commonly used in greenhouses in the Mediterranean Basin, frequently with tomato. Crop N uptake concentration has been proposed as a tool to assist with N management of crops in soilless culture. Three tomato crops were grown in free-draining rockwool to evaluate the relationship of crop N uptake concentration to crop N uptake and NO3 - leaching. The three crops were 2005 spring, 2005 autumn-winter, and 2006 spring crops. Drainage fractions were 24% in each crop. Irrigation and drainage volumes were determined daily. N applied and leached were determined daily in the 2005 spring crop and otherwise weekly. Crop N uptake was determined by difference. Average N concentrations (NO3 --N plus NH4 +-N) in nutrient solution were 9.6, 11.5 and 9.2mmolL-1, and in drainage (N leached) were 14.8, 8.5 and 11.8mmolL-1. The amounts of N leached were 178, 69 and 145kgNha-1. Crop N recoveries were 63, 82 and 69%; unrecovered N was lost by NO3 - leaching. Average N uptake concentrations were 8.6, 12.5 and 8.4mmolL-1. Maintaining the applied N concentration at slightly less than N uptake concentration for much of the crop was associated with a very high crop N recovery (82%) by the 2005 autumn-winter crop. In the two spring crops with lower crop N recoveries (63 and 69%), the average N uptake concentration was higher than the average applied N concentration. The highest N concentrations in drainage occurred when applied N concentration clearly exceeded N uptake concentration. These data demonstrated the potential for using crop N uptake concentration to assist with the formulation of nutrient solutions for soilless crops. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ramriez-Arias A.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Rodriguez F.,University of Almeria | Guzman J.L.,University of Almeria | Berenguel M.,University of Almeria
Automatica | Year: 2012

The problem of determining the trajectories to control greenhouse crop growth has traditionally been solved by using constrained optimization or applying artificial intelligence techniques. The economic profit has been used as the main criterion in most research on optimization to obtain adequate climatic control setpoints for the crop growth. This paper addresses the problem of greenhouse crop growth through a hierarchical control architecture governed by a high-level multiobjective optimization approach, where the solution to this problem is to find reference trajectories for diurnal and nocturnal temperatures (climate-related setpoints) and electrical conductivity (fertirrigation-related setpoints). The objectives are to maximize profit, fruit quality, and water-use efficiency, these being currently fostered by international rules. Illustrative results selected from those obtained in an industrial greenhouse during the last eight years are shown and described. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rodriguez Canto A.,Chapingo Autonomous University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Plant genetic resources have been studied to be preserved, improved and researched about their new uses. However, pitayas (Stenocereus spp.) and pitahayas (Hylocereus undatus), two American cacti, have been addressed from other perspectives: the artistic, historical and literary. Historical references of these cacti were found in Chronicles from conquistadors, historians and priests who came to America. They include the outstanding Chronicles of Pedro Mártir de Anglería (1494), Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo and Valdés (1535), Diego de Landa (1560), Tomás López Medel (1565) and Juan López de Melgarejo (1582). Pitahayas have been a source of inspiration of at least 140 artists from 31 countries; pitayas have been captured by at least 65 artists from 13 countries. Visual expressions include painting, drawing, sculpture, photography, printmaking, and digital art. Such renowned artists include: Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, José María Velasco, Olga Costa, Amelia Peláez and Roberto Ossaye. The oldest works of art are those of Chavín (500 BC), Olmec (900-500 BC) and Mexica cultures (1250-1500), as well as two drawings from 1535, the murals of an Augustinian convent painted in 1540 and an illustration of an Aztec Codex from 1552. There were found 9 stories and 24 poems devoted to pitayas and pitahayas. Two Nobel laureates of literature, the Chilean Gabriela Mistral and the Guatemalan Miguel Ángel Asturias were inspired by these cacti plants. The results have been published in three art books: Las pitahayas en las artes plásticas (2011), Las pitayas en las artes plásticas, la historia y la literatura (2012) and Las pitahayas en las artes plásticas, la historia y la literatura (2013). The three perspectives of study explored are rewarding and do contribute to better assess these two tropical cacti. These perspectives can be extended to all plant genetic resources existing in the world. © 2015, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


Hsieh H.-Y.,University of Michigan | Liere H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Soto E.J.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Perfecto I.,University of Michigan
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles - the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% - the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade. © 2012 The Authors.

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