Mexico City, Mexico

Chapingo Autonomous University
Mexico City, Mexico

Universidad Autónoma Chapingo is an agricultural college located in Texcoco, Mexico State in Mexico. The university is a federally funded public institution of higher education. It offers technical and full bachelor’s degrees as well as having scientific and technological research programs. Many of these programs are related to agriculture, forestry and fishing.The school began as the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura which was founded in 1854 at the Monastery of San Jacinto in Mexico City. The school was moved in 1923 to the President Álvaro Obregón ex Hacienda of Chapingo. Postgraduate studies were added in 1959. The school received autonomous status in 1978. It offers courses of study in Forestry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Industries, Irrigation, Rural Sociology and more.The main attraction for visitors at this school is its murals. In the old hacienda chapel, which is now the University Ceremonies Room is a mural by Diego Rivera called “Tierra Fecundada” . This work was begun in 1924 and completed in 1927. Covering an area of over 700m2, the work divides into three parts. The left panel depicts man’s struggle to have land, the right panel shows the evolution of Mother Nature and the center shows the communion between man and earth. It is considered to be one of Rivera’s best works. More recently, the school acquired an unnamed mural by Luis Nishizawa. This work was produced during his last year at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plasticas of UNAM and depicts the agriculture of Mexico in both the past and the present. The work is six meters high, nine meters wide and in the form of a triangle. It is placed in a building that is commonly called “El Partenon.”The school is also home to the National Museum of Agriculture. The 2,000 m2 facility presents the development of agriculture in Mexico from the pre-Hispanic past to the present day. The collection has about 4,000 objects relating to technology, agronomy including farming implements and photographs by Hanz Gutmann. Wikipedia.

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Urban greening, defined as growing vegetation in urban areas requires a citizen’s and technician’s environmental awareness and behavior. The aim of this research was to define the variables for an environmental behavior for urban greening. Surveys to agriculture postgraduate students in Mexico were carried out in 2010 and 2014, to analyze the student’s behavior for an urban environment protection. A significance analysis revealed the citizen characteristics for an urban environmental concern. Then, a logit analysis defined the variables for an urban environmental concern and activity of the students. The variables obtained for an environmental activity were: i) the year of analysis, ii) the environmental concern and iii) the environmental education. The most common environmental actions were measures that save money and/or without any cost. It was concluded that for the implementation of the urban greening in Mexico by the students/ technicians it is needed to reduce the price of the techniques and to develop adapted and feasible technologies. © 2016, Universidad del Zulia. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Barrios L.,Colegio de Mexico | Cruz-Morales J.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Vandermeer J.,University of Michigan | Perfecto I.,University of Michigan
Ecology and Society | Year: 2017

Small-scale coffee farmers understand certain complex ecological processes, and successfully navigate some of the challenges emerging from the ecological complexity on their farms. It is generally thought that scientific knowledge is able to complement farmers’ knowledge. However, for this collaboration to be fruitful, the gap between the knowledge frameworks of both farmers and scientists will need to be closed. We report on the learning results of 14 workshops held in Chiapas, Mexico during 2015 in which 117 small-scale coffee farmers of all genders (30% women) and ages who had little schooling were exposed by researchers to a natural history narrative, a multispecies network representation, a board game, and a series of graphical quizzes, all related to a nine-species complex ecological network with potential for autonomous control of the ongoing and devastating coffee rust epidemic that was affecting them. Farmers’ retention and understanding of direct and indirect bilateral interactions among organisms was assessed with different methods to elucidate the effect of adding Azteca Chess gaming sessions to a detailed and very graphical lecture. Evaluation methods that were better adapted to farmers’ conditions improved learning scores and showed statistically significant age effect (players older than 40 had lower retention scores) and gaming effect (lower retention of interactions included in the lecture but not in the game). The combination of lecture and game sessions helped participants better understand cascades of trait-mediated interactions. Participants’ debriefings confirmed qualitatively that they learned that beneficial organisms and interactions occur on their farms, and that gaming was enjoyable, motivating, and critical to grasp complex interactions. Many of the farmers concluded that the outcome of these interactions is not unique and not always in favor of rust control but is context dependent. Many concluded that there are feasible things they can do on their farms, derived from what they learned, to favor potential autonomous pest control. © 2017 by the author(s).

Molina L.G.,National Institute of Forestry | Perez E.C.M.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Perez A.B.,National Institute of Forestry
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2017

The purpose of this study was to determine the measured and simulated rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) change in Vertisols in short-term experiments when the tillage system is changed from traditional tillage (TT) to conservation tillage (CT). The study was conducted in plots in four locations in the state of Michoacán and two locations in the state of Guanajuato. In the SOC change simulation, the RothC-26.3 carbon model was evaluated with different C inputs to the soil (ET1-ET5). ET was the measured shoot biomass (SB) plus estimated rhizodeposition (RI). RI was tested at values of 10, 15, 18, 36 and 50 % total biomass (TB). The SOC changes were simulated with the best trial where ET3 = SB + (0.18*TB). Values for model efficiency and the coefficient of correlation were in the ranges of 0.56 to 0.75 and 0.79 to 0.92, respectively. The average rate of SOC change, measured and simulated, in the study period was 3.0 and 1.9 Mg ha−1 yr−1, respectively; later, in a simulation period of 45 years, SOC change was 1.2 ± 0.8. In particular, without making adjustments in the RothC parameters and with information on measured plant residue C inputs to the soil, it was possible to simulate changes in SOC with RothC and estimate trends over a period of more than 45 years. © 2017, Scientia Agricola. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-1-02 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2010

Jatropha curcas shows a big promise towards sustainable and affordable biofuels. Several groups are working independently towards development of both agrosystems and high quality germplasm of Jatropha, and downstream processing and biodiesel markets. The challenges are to make the big promises come true: high oil yield, low competition with food crops, use in various agrosystems from monoculture plantations, to mixed cropping and use in hedges around agricultural fields. JATROPT aims at linking high quality research groups and companies that are now operating in different continents in order to achieve a large synergy in research and development of jatropha as a biofuel crop. In five Workpackages (Breeding, Genetic tools, Sustainable Agrosystems, Demonstrating and Dissemination), the following aims are pursued: 1) Achieve a world wide germplasm collection of Jatropha curcas, molecularly characterised in order to classify the collection into groups with similar genetic backgrounds; evaluation of elite germplasm of this collection in Asia, Africa and Latin-America; linking segregating population based on parents from different parts of the world and creating a global Jatropha linkage map. 2) Develop genetic information and marker tools (genetics of toxic/low toxic trait, branching patterns; disease resistance) to speed up the breeding process. 3) Develop agrosystems that yield sustainable and affordable biofuels - and interesting uses of the co-products (biomass/protein residues after oil extraction), with a focus on Pro Poor development and on designing systems in which competion for food and fuel can be minimised; 4) Demonstration of the potential of local/regional use of produced biofuels to increase agricultural and general economic productivity will be investigated. 5) Achieve dissemination of knowledge on quality of germplasm, on genetics and sustainable agrosystems setting up distribution of combined packages of agronomic guidelines and germplasm.

Cruz-Hipolito H.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Osuna M.D.,Finca la Orden Valdesequera Research Center | Dominguez-Valenzuela J.A.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Espinoza N.,Agricultural Research Institute INIA | De Prado R.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Whole-plant response of two suspected resistant Avena fatua biotypes from Chile and Mexico to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides [aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP), cyclohexanedione (CHD), and pinoxaden (PPZ)] and the mechanism behind their resistance were studied. Both dose-response and ACCase enzyme activity assays revealed cross-resistance to the three herbicide families in the biotype from Chile. On the other hand, the wild oat biotype from Mexico exhibited resistance to the APP herbicides and cross-resistance to the CHD herbicides, but no resistance to PPZ. Differences in susceptibility between the two biotypes were unrelated to absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the herbicides. PCR generated fragments of the ACCase CT domain spanning the potential mutations sited in the resistant and susceptible biotypes were sequenced and compared. A point mutation was detected in the aspartic acid triplet at the amino acid position 2078 in the Chilean biotype and in isoleucine at the amino acid position 2041 in the Mexican wild oat biotype, which resulted in a glycine triplet and an asparagine triplet, respectively. On the basis of in vitro assays, the target enzyme (ACCase) in these resistant biotypes contains a herbicide-insensitive form. This is the first reported evidence of resistance to pinoxaden in A. fatua. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Cruz-Hipolito H.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Dominguez-Valenzuela J.A.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Osuna M.D.,Finca La Orden Valdesequera Research Center | De Prado R.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background and aims: In this study, we describe the molecular, physiological and agronomic aspects involved in the resistance to acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase inhibiting herbicides (ACCase) observed in one biotype of Phalaris paradoxa from Mexico. Methods: Dose-response Assays: The herbicide rate inhibiting plant growth of each biotype by 50% with respect to the untreated control, ED 50. Enzyme purification and ACCase assays to determine herbicide rate inhibiting the enzyme of each biotype by 50% with respect to the untreated control, I 50. Absorption and Translocation Assays with [ 14C]diclofop-methyl. Metabolism of diclofop-methyl and its metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Study of target site resistance mechanism at enzyme and molecular levels. Results: In this work, it has been studied the whole-plant response of Phalaris paradoxa biotypes from Mexico resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides: aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP), cyclohexanedione (CHD) and phenylpyrazoline (PPZ), and the mechanism behind their resistance were studied. To analyse the resistance mechanism, the enzyme ACCase activity was investigated. Results from biochemical assays indicated a target-site resistance as the cause of reduced susceptibility to ACCase inhibitors. The absorption, translocation and metabolism were similar between R and S biotypes. A point mutation never described before was detected within the triplet of glycine at the amino acid position 2096 (referring to EMBL accession no. AJ310767) and resulted in the triplet of serine. This new mutation could explain the loss of affinity for the ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. Conclusions: We found a new mutation, which had never been described before. This mutation was detected within the triplet of glycine at the amino acid position 2096. This new mutation confers cross-resistance to three different chemical groups of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Thompson R.B.,University of Almeria | Gallardo M.,University of Almeria | Rodriguez J.S.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Sanchez J.A.,University of Almeria | Magan J.J.,Estacion Experimental Las Palmerillas
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Free-draining soilless culture is commonly used in greenhouses in the Mediterranean Basin, frequently with tomato. Crop N uptake concentration has been proposed as a tool to assist with N management of crops in soilless culture. Three tomato crops were grown in free-draining rockwool to evaluate the relationship of crop N uptake concentration to crop N uptake and NO3 - leaching. The three crops were 2005 spring, 2005 autumn-winter, and 2006 spring crops. Drainage fractions were 24% in each crop. Irrigation and drainage volumes were determined daily. N applied and leached were determined daily in the 2005 spring crop and otherwise weekly. Crop N uptake was determined by difference. Average N concentrations (NO3 --N plus NH4 +-N) in nutrient solution were 9.6, 11.5 and 9.2mmolL-1, and in drainage (N leached) were 14.8, 8.5 and 11.8mmolL-1. The amounts of N leached were 178, 69 and 145kgNha-1. Crop N recoveries were 63, 82 and 69%; unrecovered N was lost by NO3 - leaching. Average N uptake concentrations were 8.6, 12.5 and 8.4mmolL-1. Maintaining the applied N concentration at slightly less than N uptake concentration for much of the crop was associated with a very high crop N recovery (82%) by the 2005 autumn-winter crop. In the two spring crops with lower crop N recoveries (63 and 69%), the average N uptake concentration was higher than the average applied N concentration. The highest N concentrations in drainage occurred when applied N concentration clearly exceeded N uptake concentration. These data demonstrated the potential for using crop N uptake concentration to assist with the formulation of nutrient solutions for soilless crops. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Ramriez-Arias A.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Rodriguez F.,University of Almeria | Guzman J.L.,University of Almeria | Berenguel M.,University of Almeria
Automatica | Year: 2012

The problem of determining the trajectories to control greenhouse crop growth has traditionally been solved by using constrained optimization or applying artificial intelligence techniques. The economic profit has been used as the main criterion in most research on optimization to obtain adequate climatic control setpoints for the crop growth. This paper addresses the problem of greenhouse crop growth through a hierarchical control architecture governed by a high-level multiobjective optimization approach, where the solution to this problem is to find reference trajectories for diurnal and nocturnal temperatures (climate-related setpoints) and electrical conductivity (fertirrigation-related setpoints). The objectives are to maximize profit, fruit quality, and water-use efficiency, these being currently fostered by international rules. Illustrative results selected from those obtained in an industrial greenhouse during the last eight years are shown and described. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rodriguez Canto A.,Chapingo Autonomous University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Plant genetic resources have been studied to be preserved, improved and researched about their new uses. However, pitayas (Stenocereus spp.) and pitahayas (Hylocereus undatus), two American cacti, have been addressed from other perspectives: the artistic, historical and literary. Historical references of these cacti were found in Chronicles from conquistadors, historians and priests who came to America. They include the outstanding Chronicles of Pedro Mártir de Anglería (1494), Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo and Valdés (1535), Diego de Landa (1560), Tomás López Medel (1565) and Juan López de Melgarejo (1582). Pitahayas have been a source of inspiration of at least 140 artists from 31 countries; pitayas have been captured by at least 65 artists from 13 countries. Visual expressions include painting, drawing, sculpture, photography, printmaking, and digital art. Such renowned artists include: Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, José María Velasco, Olga Costa, Amelia Peláez and Roberto Ossaye. The oldest works of art are those of Chavín (500 BC), Olmec (900-500 BC) and Mexica cultures (1250-1500), as well as two drawings from 1535, the murals of an Augustinian convent painted in 1540 and an illustration of an Aztec Codex from 1552. There were found 9 stories and 24 poems devoted to pitayas and pitahayas. Two Nobel laureates of literature, the Chilean Gabriela Mistral and the Guatemalan Miguel Ángel Asturias were inspired by these cacti plants. The results have been published in three art books: Las pitahayas en las artes plásticas (2011), Las pitayas en las artes plásticas, la historia y la literatura (2012) and Las pitahayas en las artes plásticas, la historia y la literatura (2013). The three perspectives of study explored are rewarding and do contribute to better assess these two tropical cacti. These perspectives can be extended to all plant genetic resources existing in the world. © 2015, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

Hsieh H.-Y.,University of Michigan | Liere H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Soto E.J.,Chapingo Autonomous University | Perfecto I.,University of Michigan
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles - the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% - the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade. © 2012 The Authors.

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