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Liu Y.,Vanderbilt University | Osborn C.Y.,Vanderbilt University | Qian H.-Z.,Vanderbilt University | Yin L.,Vanderbilt University | And 7 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2016

Linking and engaging HIV-positive patients in care is the key bridging step to glean the documented health and prevention advantages of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In China, HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) is surging, yet many HIV-positive MSM do not use HIV care services. We conducted a qualitative study in order to help positive interventions to promote linkage-to-care in this key population. Four focus group discussions (FGD) were held among HIV-positive MSM in Beijing, China, to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices related to HIV care. FGD participates highlighted six major barriers of linkage to/engagement in HIV care: (1) perceived discrimination from health care workers; (2) lack of guidance and follow-up; (3) clinic time or location inconvenience; (4) privacy disclosure concerns; (5) psychological burden of committing to HIV care; and (6) concerns about treatment. Five major sub-themes emerged from discussions on the facilitators of linkage to/engagement in care: (1) peer referral and accompaniment; (2) free HIV care; (3) advocacy from HIV-positive MSM counselors; (4) extended involvement for linking MSM to care; and (5) standardization of HIV care (i.e., reliable high quality care regardless of venue). An understanding of the barriers and facilitators that may impact the access to HIV care is essential for improving the continuum of care for MSM in China. Findings from our study provide research and policy guidance for how current HIV prevention and care interventions can be enhanced to link and engage HIV-positive MSM in HIV care. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.

Xu Y.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | Zhang Z.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Li D.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Liu Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Early detection of HIV infection enables timely care and treatment. However, many men who have sex with men (MSM) remain unaware of their HIV status because they do not or are unable to access HIV testing services. Oral fluid HIV rapid tests have the potential to increase HIV testing. This study is the first to evaluate willingness to use the oral fluid test among MSM in China.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing from July to October, 2012. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires.Results:Of 262 who participated in the survey, 223(85.1%) reported that they were willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Willingness to use the oral fluid test was associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-5.10), lack of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with male partners in the past one month (AOR: 2.38; 95% 95%CI: 1.15-4.95), having taken more than 4 HIV tests (AOR: 3.54; 95%CI:1.52-8.28), and having ever heard of the oral fluid HIV rapid test from gay friends or gay organizations (AOR: 3.24, 95%CI: 1.40-7.51). Among those who expressed willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test, the median amount of money they were willing to pay was 8 dollars. Among the 39 participants who were unwilling to use the oral fluid test, 79.5% (31/39) expressed concerns about the accuracy of the oral fluid HIV rapid test results and 17.9%(7/39) reported that they were not familiar with the oral fluid test and did not know how to use such a test.Conclusions:A high proportion of MSM in Beijing appear to be willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Appropriate cost and education measures could help improve acceptance of the oral fluid test. © 2013 Xu et al.

Li D.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Li S.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Liu Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Gao Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 13 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2012

Objectives: (1) To assess the HIV incidence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a large cohort study in Beijing, China and (2) to identify sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors of HIV seroconversion among MSM in Beijing, China. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Baseline and follow-up visits were conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Participants: A cohort of 797 HIV-seronegative MSM was recruited from August to December 2009, with follow-up occurring after 6 and 12 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures: At baseline and follow-up visits, participants reported sociodemographic and sexual behaviour information, and were tested for HIV, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis with whole blood specimens. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Results: Most study participants (86.8%) were retained by the 12-month follow-up. The HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis incidence rates were 8.09 (95% CI 6.92 to 9.26), 5.92 (95% CI 5.44 to 6.40) and 8.06 (95% CI 7.56 to 8.56) cases per 100 person-years, respectively. HIV seroconversion was significantly associated with being <25 years old, having <12 years of education, having >1 male sex partner in the past 6 months, and being syphilis positive or HSV-2 positive. Conclusions: The HIV incidence among MSM in Beijing is serious. Interventions and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be combined with HIV control and prevention measures among MSM.

Hu Y.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Qian H.-Z.,Vanderbilt University | Sun J.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Gao L.,Peking Union Medical College | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: In light of China's unique ethnic and sociocultural context, and a marked rise in HIV prevalence among MSM, it is important to determine prevalence, genotypes and predictors of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. METHODS: In 2010-2011, we recruited MSM (age range 18-61; median 28 years) through peer volunteers, and collected demographic/behavioral information via interviewer-administrated questionnaires. Trained health workers collected anal swabs for HPV genotyping by PCR and blood samples for HIV/syphilis serologies. RESULTS: We obtained anal specimens from 212 HIV-infected and 459 HIV-uninfected participants. Among HIV-infected MSM, 82.1% were HPV-infected vs. 57.5% in HIV-uninfected (p<0.01). HIV-infected men had the greatest likelihood of multiple types: 17.9% uninfected; 36.3% with one type; 36.8% with 2-3; 9.0% with ≥4. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among HIV- infected (61.3%) than uninfected participants (39.7%; p<0.01). HIV-uninfected MSM reporting always using condoms during insertive anal intercourse (past 6 months) were less likely to be HPV-infected (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.31-0.77). Among HIV-uninfected MSM, HPV infection was associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse (past 6 months; OR=1.92, 95%CI: 1.19-3.11) and being forced to have sex (previous year; OR=3.32, 95%CI: 1.10-10.0). Multivariable logistic analysis among HIV infected MSM suggested that unprotected oral intercourse (past 6 months) was associated with HPV (adjusted OR=2.12, 95%CI: 1.00-4.48). Syphilis occurred in 55.8% of HIV-infected/HPV-infected, 50.0% of HIV-infected/HPV-uninfected, 19.6% of HIV-uninfected/HPV-infected, and 13.0% of HIV-uninfected/HPV-uninfected MSM. CONCLUSIONS: HPV anal infections were more common among HIV-infected than uninfected MSM in China, including oncogenic and multiple types. Unprotected oral and receptive anal sex were was independently associated with HPV infection. Promotion of safer sex and HPV vaccination is strongly recommended among MSM. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Li Q.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | Liu Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Zhou Z.,National Center for Control and Prevention NC | Li S.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 12 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2012

To investigate factors associated with online sex-seeking behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. MSM participants were recruited from two cohort studies with multiple enrollment methods from November 2006 to February 2007 and from March to June 2008, respectively. Data collected included demographics and sexual behaviors. Of the 901 participants, 68.1% were single; 69.3% were non-Beijing residents; 94.4% considered themselves to be homosexual; 65.2% received college or higher levels of education; the median age was 26 years; 73.0% sought male sex partners via the Internet in the past 3 months; 66.2% had ≥2 sex partners. Younger age, higher levels of education and having had ≥2 male sex partners in the past 3 months were independently associated with seeking sex partners on the Internet. These findings indicate that Internet-based intervention programs could encourage younger high-risk MSM to use condoms and reduce their numbers of sexual partners. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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