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Raj K.,Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center | Taylor T.,University of California at Irvine | Wray C.,Western University of Health Sciences | Stamos M.,University of California at Irvine | Zell J.,University of California at Irvine
Journal of Carcinogenesis | Year: 2011

Background: Patients with history of colorectal cancer (CRC) are at increased risk for developing a second primary colorectal cancer (SPCRC) as compared to the general population. However, the degree of risk is uncertain. Here, we attempt to quantify the risk, using data from the large population-based California Cancer Registry (CCR). Materials and Methods: We analyzed the CCR data for cases with surgically-treated colon and rectal cancer diagnosed during the period 1990-2005 and followed through up to January 2008. We excluded those patients diagnosed with metastatic disease and those in whom SPCRC was diagnosed within 6 months of the diagnosis of the primary CRC. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to evaluate risk as compared to the underlying population after taking into account age, sex, ethnicity, and time at risk. Results: The study cohort consisted of 69809 cases with colon cancer and 34448 with rectal cancer. Among these patients there were 1443 cases of SPCRCs. The SIR for developing SPCRC was higher in colon cancer survivors (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.5) as compared to the underlying population. The incidence of SPCRC was also higher in females (SIR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6) and Hispanics (SIR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.7 to 2.4) with primary colon cancer. The SIR for developing an SPCRC was higher only among those whose initial tumor was located in the descending colon (SIR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.0) and proximal colon (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6). Conclusions: Our results confirm that CRC patients, especially females and Hispanics, are at a higher risk of developing SPCRC than the general population. Differential SPCRC risk by colorectal tumor subsite is dependent on gender and ethnicity, underscoring the heterogeneous nature of CRC.

Ou S.-H.I.,University of California at Irvine | Ou S.-H.I.,Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center
Cancer | Year: 2015

The treatment of lung cancer has advanced since 2009, the end of the study period for Sacher et al's study. The use of genomic profiling for lung cancer and the use of targeted immunotherapy should be analyzed in the coming years with Sacher et al's study as a reference. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

Yang Z.,Shandong University | Yang S.,Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center | Misner B.J.,Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center | Liu-Smith F.,Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a third of the estimated cancer-caused deaths worldwide. To deeply understand the mechanisms controlling HCC progression is of primary importance to develop new approaches for treatment. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox effector factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) has been uncovered elevated in various types of cancer, including HCC. Additionally, HCC progression is always correlated with elevated copper (Cu). Our previous data demonstrated that Cu treatment initiated APE/Ref-1 expression and its downstream targets. Therefore, we hypothesized that APE/Ref-1 may be involved in HCC progression through mediating the effect of Cu to its signaling cascades. Following different treatments, human HCC cell line (Hep3B) and immortalized non-malignant hepatocyte cell line (THLE3) were analyzed to explore the role of APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway. Unstained human tissue microarrays (TMA) were subjected to IHC analysis to study the relationship between APE/Ref-1 expression and clinic features. APE/Ref-1 was upregulated in HCC cells consistent with the strong expression of APE/Ref-1 in HCC tissue microarray. Greater cytoplasmic accumulation of APE/Ref-1 was found in poorly differentiated and more aggressive tumors. Also we provide evidence to show that APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway stimulates cellular proliferation, enhances antiapoptosis, and facilitates metastasis through experimental knockdown of APE/Ref-1 using siRNA in Hep3B cells or overexpressing APE/Ref-1 in THLE3 cells. These results define a novel role of APE/Ref-1 in HCC progression as being an important mediating and potentiating molecule, and also provide a basis for further investigations utilizing appropriate APE/Ref-1 inhibitors in combination with chemo-drugs for HCC treatment.

Carroll R.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Benya R.V.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Turgeon D.K.,University of Michigan | Vareed S.,University of Michigan | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2011

Curcumin is derived from the spice tumeric and has antiinflammatory and antineoplastic effects in vitro and in animal models, including preventing aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and adenomas in murine models of colorectal carcinogenesis. Inhibiting the production of the procarcinogenic eicosanoids prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) can suppress carcinogenesis in rodents. Curcumin reduces mucosal concentrations of PGE 2 (via inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) and 5-HETE (via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase) in rats. Although preclinical data support curcumin activity in many sites, the poor bioavailability reported for this agent supports its use in the colorectum. We assessed the effects of oral curcumin (2 g or 4 g per day for 30 days) on PGE 2 within ACF (primary endpoint), 5-HETE, ACF number, and proliferation in a nonrandomized, open-label clinical trial in 44 eligible smokers with eight or more ACF on screening colonoscopy. We assessed pre- and posttreatment concentrations of PGE 2 and 5-HETE by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy in ACF and normal-tissue biopsies; ACF number via rectal endoscopy; proliferation by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry; and curcumin concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography in serum and rectal mucosal samples. Forty-one subjects completed the study. Neither dose of curcumin reduced PGE 2 or 5-HETE within ACF or normal mucosa or reduced Ki-67 in normal mucosa. A significant 40% reduction in ACF number occurred with the 4-g dose (P < 0.005), whereas ACF were not reduced in the 2-g group. The ACF reduction in the 4-g group was associated with a significant, five-fold increase in posttreatment plasma curcumin/conjugate levels (versus pretreatment; P = 0.009). Curcumin was well tolerated at both 2 g and 4 g. Our data suggest that curcumin can decrease ACF number, and this is potentially mediated by curcumin conjugates delivered systemically. ©2011 AACR.

Sender L.S.,CHOC Childrens Cancer Institute | Sender L.S.,Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center | Kain Z.N.,University of California at Irvine
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND:: Children with cancer often experience significant levels of pain and their pain is generally undermanaged. Management of care to patients with cancer has shifted from the hospital to the home, and as such parents are charged with managing children's pain. However, parents may have misconceptions of analgesic use, which can lead to undertreatment of pain in children. The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes toward pain medication and perceptions of pain expression among parents of children undergoing cancer treatment. PROCEDURE:: Parents of children who were undergoing cancer treatment at a hospital were recruited to take part in a survey study. A total of 187 parents completed a survey examining their attitudes toward medication and perceptions of pain expression in children. RESULTS:: Many parents reported concerns regarding analgesic use to treat their children's pain and misconceptions about how children can express pain. Regression analyses noted that parental perceptions of pain expression were related to children's experience of chronic or recurring pain and the 2 dimensions of child temperament: emotionality and sociability. CONCLUSIONS:: Many parents of children with cancer have misconceptions regarding issues of pain management; these misconceptions can potentially lead to undertreatment of pain in children. These misconceptions are associated with aspects of children's temperament. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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