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Tinwongger S.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Tinwongger S.,Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Bureau | Proespraiwong P.,Charoen Pokphand Foods Public Company Ltd | Thawonsuwan J.,Coastal Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Fish Pathology

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by a unique strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that has a plasmid harboring virulent genes. A rapid and accurate diagnosis method is necessary for surveillance of this infectious disease in aquaculture. In this study, three primer sets (TUMSAT-Vp1, Vp2 and Vp3) were designed based on the plasmid DNA sequence. We examined 98 strains of bacteria isolated from shrimp farms in different areas in Thailand. These included 48 strains of V. parahaemolyticus (AHPND strain), 38 strains of non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus and 12 strains of non-V. parahaemolyticus. All the AHPND strains were detected by TUMSAT-Vp1, Vp2 and Vp3. However, one non-AHPND strain tested positive for TUMSAT-Vp1 and Vp2. The accuracy of AHPND detection was validated with two other primer publicly available sets (AP1 nad AP2). AP1 and AP2 primers gave a few false positives in non-AHPND strains. Only TUMSAT-Vp3 primer detected the AHPND strains examined in this study with 100% accuracy. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Fish Pathology. Source

Uno K.,Aichi Konan College | Higashioto Y.,Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co. | Chaweepack T.,Chanthaburi Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center | Ruangpan L.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative
Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residual OTC levels in raw materials were 9 - 18 fold higher than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.2 μg/g). The residual OTC was reduced 10 - 30% by washing treatment. By the acid treatment with HCl, the OTC residues were reduced >98%. The deproteinized material contained negligible levels of OTC. Residual OA levels in raw materials was much higher (134 - 376 fold) than the MRL (0.03 μg/g). The residual OA was reduced considerably (34 - 68%) by washing treatment. By the demineralization, the residual OA could not be detected in both shrimp carapaces, while the levels of OA residues were determined more than MRL in shells. In the deproteinized materials, no residual OA were detected. Finally, residual OTC and OA could not be detected in the chitin materials for both shrimps. © Published by Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon, Turkey in cooperation with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan. Source

Uno K.,Aichi Konan College | Chaweepack T.,Chanthaburi Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center | Ruangpan L.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative
Aquaculture International

The present study examined the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of oxytetracycline (OTC) in vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) after intra-sinus (10 mg/kg) and oral (10 and 50 mg/kg) administration and also investigated the net changes of OTC residues in the shrimp after the thermal, acid and alkaline processing methods. The hemolymph concentrations of OTC after intra-sinus dosing were best described by a two-compartment open model. The oral bioavailability was found to be 48.2 and 43.6% at doses of 10 and 50 mg OTC/kg, respectively. The peak hemolymph concentrations after 10 and 50 mg OTC/kg doses were 3.37 and 17.4 μg/ml; the times to peak hemolymph concentrations were 7 and 10 h. The elimination half-lives were found to be 15. 0 and 11.5 h for the low and high dose, respectively. The residual OTC was rapidly eliminated from muscle with the elimination half-life value of 19.4 and 15.4 h, respectively, for the groups treated with doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg. The residual OTC levels in the muscle fell below the MRL (0.2 μg/g) at 72 and 96-h post-dosing at dose levels of 10 or 50 mg/kg, respectively. Residual OTC levels in muscle and shell were approximately 20-50% lower in the thermal treatment such as boiling, baking and frying. By the acid treatment, OTC residues were reduced to ≥80%, while those were reduced to around 30% by alkaline treatment. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Chaweepack T.,Chanthaburi Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center | Chaweepack S.,Chanthaburi Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center | Muenthaisong B.,Chanthaburi Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center | Ruangpan L.,Chanthaburi Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture International

Some plant and herb extracts reportedly possess antimicrobial activities and also have the ability to enhance the nonspecific immune system of shrimp, thereby promoting disease resistance. In this study, a natural herb, galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), was used to prevent infectious disease in cultured shrimp, and the effects of galangal–ethanol extract on the expression of the immune-related genes in the shrimp were analyzed via a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of mRNA in circulating hemocytes. Following the intramuscular injection of either galangal extract or trans-p-coumaryl diacetate that had been isolated from galangal rhizome, Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) showed significant increases in the relative expression ratio of the six immune-related genes compared with a control group. Furthermore, following the oral administration of galangal extract, similar inducible effects of the expression of immune-related genes in the Pacific white shrimp were obtained, which led to an enhanced survival rate from Vibrio harveyi infection. Thus, this study revealed that both galangal extract and trans-p-coumaryl diacetate stimulated the immune system response, thereby promoting resistance to V. harveyi infection in Pacific white shrimp. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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