Chantal Biya International Reference Center for Research on Prevention and Management of HIV AIDS

Yaoundé, Cameroon

Chantal Biya International Reference Center for Research on Prevention and Management of HIV AIDS

Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Herrick J.A.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Legrand F.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Gounoue R.,University of Yaounde I | Nchinda G.,Chantal Biya International Reference Center for Research on Prevention and Management of HIV AIDS | And 11 more authors.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2017

Background.: Severe adverse reactions have been observed in individuals with Loa loa infection treated with either diethylcarbamazine (DEC), the drug of choice for loiasis, or ivermectin (IVM), which is used in mass drug administration programs for control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Africa. In this study, posttreatment clinical and immunologic reactions were compared following single-dose therapy with DEC or IVM to assess whether these reactions have the same underlying pathophysiology.Methods.: Twelve patients with loiasis and microfilarial counts <2000 mf/mL were randomized to receive single-dose DEC (8 mg/kg) or IVM (200 µg/kg). Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed at 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours and 5, 7, 9, and 14 days posttreatment.Results.: Posttreatment adverse events were similar following DEC or IVM, but peaked earlier in subjects who received DEC, consistent with a trend toward more rapid and complete microfilarial clearance in the DEC group. After a transient rise (post-IVM) or fall (post-DEC) in the first 24 hours posttreatment, the eosinophil count rose significantly in both groups, peaking at day 5 in the DEC group and day 9 in the IVM group. Serum interleukin 5 levels and eosinophil activation, as assessed by surface expression of CD69 and serum levels of eosinophil granule proteins, were increased posttreatment in both groups.Conclusions.: Despite differences in eosinophil and lymphocyte counts during the first 24 hours posttreatment, the overall pattern of hematologic and immunologic changes suggest that posttreatment reactions following DEC and IVM share a common pathophysiology.Clinical Trials Registration.: NCT01593722.

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