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Shao Q.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Deng Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | shen H.,Changzhou Health College | Fang H.,Jiangxi Academy of Forestry | Zhao X.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2011

A 15-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg. Three factors such as extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (h), and ratio of water to raw material were investigated. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also examined using the appropriate statistical methods. The adjusted coefficient of determination (RAdj2) for the model was 0.9754, and the probability value (P= 0.001) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be: optimized extraction temperature 83.3 °C, extraction time 1.55. h and ratio of water to raw material 29.48. Under these conditions, the mean extraction yield of polysaccharides was 5.182 ± 0.093%, which was in good agreement with the predicted model value. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Shen H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen H.,Changzhou Health College | Guo Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li Y.,Kunming University | Fang H.,Jiangxi Academy of Forestry
Journal of Plant Resources and Environment | Year: 2013

Under darkness (the control) and red, green, blue, yellow and white lights, changes of carotenoids content, color value and color difference in pigment solution from ether extracts of capitulum of Dendranthema indicum (Linn.) Des. Moul. were studied, and also, correlation of color value and color difference with storage time was analyzed. The results show that under different color lights, carotenoids content in solution and color value of solution under wavelength of 412, 436 and 468 nm all appear the gradual downward trend with prolonging of storage time (0-50 d), while color parameters (L*, a* and b*) of solution have different changing law. There is an obviously significant difference in carotenoids content before and after storage (P<0. 01), and a significant negative correlation between carotenoids content and storage time. When storage time reaches to 50 d, reduce range of carotenoids content under red, blue, white, yellow and green lights and darkness is in order of 98. 97%, 98. 33%, 95. 10%, 92. 30%, 80. 38% and 17. 02%. Color value of solution during storage time 10-50 d all is significantly lower than that at the beginning, in which, color value changing under darkness is the smallest and its color value is significantly higher than that under other treatments, while reduce range of color value is the biggest under red light. Under darkness, solution brightness increases and color change is not obvious, while under other color lights, solution color changes from green to red and from yellow to blue, and a* value increases significantly and b* value decreases significantly as compared with the control (P<0. 05), but solution brightness generally has no significant difference (P>0. 05). During storage period of 0-50 d, there is a linear relationship in color value and color difference of solution with storage time, and decoloration regularity of solution is in accordance with the monadic degradation curve. It is suggested that carotenoids pigment in D. indicum flower is sensitive to red, green, blue, yellow and white lights, and the longer the illumination time the more sharply the decomposition. And this kind of pigment should be stored under avoiding light during application process.

Fang H.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fang H.-L.,Jiangxi Academy of Forest | Guo Q.-S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen H.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2012

Genetic variation and structure in 36 wild populations of Chrysanthemum indicum L. were assessed using chemical and molecular analyses in this paper. Using 24 selected ISSR primers 238 bands were generated, of which 205 bands were polymorphic (86.13%), and with 28 selected SRAP primer combinations 290 amplified bands were observed with 253 polymorphic bands (87.22%). The statistical results indicated that there was a high genetic differentiation among populations (G ST 0.421 and 0.436). The UPGMA clustering results using ISSR, SRAP or ISSR+SRAP combination showed the genetic distance had no significant correlation with geographic distance. However, cluster results based on the contents of quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and acacetin did not keep in good accordance with molecular analysis, indicating that environmental and genetic factors may play an essential role in determining the bioactive compound levels of C. indicum. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Shen H.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen H.-J.,Changzhou Health College | Guo Q.-S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fang H.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Medicinal Plant Research | Year: 2011

Chrysanthemum indicum L. is a significant medicinal plant, which flowers (capitula) are usually used as Chinese medicine. The phytochemical test analyzed the regularity of biosynthesis and degradation of flavonoids and phenolic acids in flowers which grown under colored polyethylene and harvested from five flowering stages. Dry weight of one thousand buds or flower heads from different maturation stages and total number of flowers from individual plant were evaluated as biomass yield. The results indicated that the total number of buds and flower heads of individual plant grown under red polyethylene film was substantially higher than other treatments (P<0.01), as well as accumulated more quercetin, apigenin and chlorogenic acid, but gave poor content of luteolin and caffeic acid. Comparing with plants grown in open condition, blue polyethylene has the lowest mean weight of one thousand buds or flower heads from different harvesting stages, but it has potentials to increase the total number of buds and flower heads from individual plant and the yield of bioactive compounds total flavonoids, quercetin, apigenin, acacetin, linarin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, except luteolin. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Shen H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen H.,Changzhou Health College | Guo Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fang H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Medicinal Plant Research | Year: 2011

Flos Chrysanthemi Indici (FCI) was considered as a traditional medicine and regarded as a conventional food in China, Korea and Japan. Toxicological evaluation of carotenoid-type extracts derived from FCI was investigated in the present paper. Acute toxicity of the extracts was evaluated with a single dose administered by the intragastric route to SD rats in dosages of 15 g/kg. After an observation period of 2 weeks after intragastric administration, no mortality or any changes in appearance, behavior occurred for both female and male rats in the high dosages mentioned. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of the internal organs revealed no pathological changes. The observations of acute toxicity test indicated that the extracts were nontoxic. Genetic toxicity of the extracts was assessed by Ames assay in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102) with and without metabolic activation (S9), by bone marrow micronucleus test and sperm abnormality test in ICR mice. The examinations of genotoxicity assay indicated that the extracts lack genotoxic potential. Although, these relatively shortterm studies document no toxicity, longer-term use could result in serious toxicity. Further studies are therefore required to study long-term toxicity. © 2011 Academic Journals.

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