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Ma Z.,Nanjing University | Ma Z.,Emory University | Hu X.,Emory University | Sayer A.M.,Universities Space Research Association | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2016

Background: Three decades of rapid economic development is causing severe and widespread PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) pollution in China. However, research on the health impacts of PM2.5 exposure has been hindered by limited historical PM2.5 concentration data. Objectives: We estimated ambient PM2.5 concentrations from 2004 to 2013 in China at 0.1° resolution using the most recent satellite data and evaluated model performance with available ground observations. Methods: We developed a two-stage spatial statistical model using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 aerosol optical depth (AOD) and assimilated meteorology, land use data, and PM2.5 concentrations from China’s recently established ground monitoring network. An inverse variance weighting (IVW) approach was developed to combine MODIS Dark Target and Deep Blue AOD to optimize data coverage. We evaluated modelpredicted PM2.5 concentrations from 2004 to early 2014 using ground observations. Results: The overall model cross-validation R2 and relative prediction error were 0.79 and 35.6%, respectively. Validation beyond the model year (2013) indicated that it accurately predicted PM2.5 concentrations with little bias at the monthly (R2 = 0.73, regression slope = 0.91) and seasonal (R2 = 0.79, regression slope = 0.92) levels. Seasonal variations revealed that winter was the most polluted season and that summer was the cleanest season. Analysis of predicted PM2.5 levels showed a mean annual increase of 1.97 μg/m3 between 2004 and 2007 and a decrease of 0.46 μg/m3 between 2008 and 2013. Conclusions: Our satellite-driven model can provide reliable historical PM2.5 estimates in China at a resolution comparable to those used in epidemiologic studies on the health effects of long-term PM2.5 exposure in North America. This data source can potentially advance research on PM2.5 health effects in China. © 2016, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved. Source

Su G.,Nanjing University | Saunders D.,University of Saskatchewan | Yu Y.,Nanjing University | Yu Y.,Changzhou Environmental Monitoring Center | And 6 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Since the phase-out of PBDEs, reports regarding occurrences of these compounds in the environment have become less frequent. To characterize potential influences of the phase-out of PBDEs' on concentrations in the environment, trends in concentrations as a function of time were investigated for two additive brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCDs. Three aquatic species, including shrimp, common carp, and yellow catfish, were collected from Meiliang Bay of Tai Lake, 2009-2012. The analysis of PBDEs in three aquatic organisms has shown a downward-trend in the first three years but a significant upward-trend in the final year. Concentrations of HBCDs have not shown temporal increases in the investigated environments. Concentrations of both PBDEs and HBCDs in the three studied organisms increased as a function of trophic level, which suggested that these additive flame retardants can be biomagnified through the food web of Tai Lake. In accordance with previous publications, PBDE-47 contributed the greatest proportion of ∑PBDEs and had a detection frequency of 100% α-HBCD was the predominate isomer that contributed to ∑HBCDs. Both β-HBCD and γ-HBCD were likely detected at lesser concentrations than the α-isomer due to differences in bioavailability. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs in the three aquatic organisms from Tai Lake ranged from 1.13 to 97.59ngg-1 lipid. These concentrations were generally less than those in biota from other countries, but equal to those found at other locations in China. Specimens from the Yangtze River had greater concentrations of ∑HBCDs (169.6-316.5ngg-1 lipid) than those collected at Tai Lake, which were comparatively greater than many reported concentrations in freshwater organisms from other countries. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang L.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Wang L.,National Climate Center | He W.-P.,National Climate Center | Liao L.-J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2014

Parameter estimation is an important scientific problem in various fields such as chaos control, chaos synchronization and other mathematical models. In this paper, a new method for parameter estimation in nonlinear dynamical equations is proposed based on evolutionary modelling (EM). This will be achieved by utilizing the following characteristics of EM which includes self-organizing, adaptive and self-learning features which are inspired by biological natural selection, and mutation and genetic inheritance. The performance of the new method is demonstrated by using various numerical tests on the classic chaos model-Lorenz equation (Lorenz 1963). The results indicate that the new method can be used for fast and effective parameter estimation irrespective of whether partial parameters or all parameters are unknown in the Lorenz equation. Moreover, the new method has a good convergence rate. Noises are inevitable in observational data. The influence of observational noises on the performance of the presented method has been investigated. The results indicate that the strong noises, such as signal noise ratio (SNR) of 10 dB, have a larger influence on parameter estimation than the relatively weak noises. However, it is found that the precision of the parameter estimation remains acceptable for the relatively weak noises, e.g. SNR is 20 or 30 dB. It indicates that the presented method also has some anti-noise performance. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Shi H.,East China Normal University | Sun Z.,East China Normal University | Liu Z.,Shanghai Ocean University | Xue Y.,Changzhou Environmental Monitoring Center
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2012

Pharmaceuticals have been recognized as a continuing threat to environmental stability. Few experimental data are available for the effects of clotrimazole and amiodarone on the ecological environment. An acute test with embryos and a chronic test with larvae of amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis) were thus conducted to determine the influence of clotrimazole or amiodarone on early amphibian development. In acute test, % survival and the body length were numerically decreased by both pharmaceuticals treatments compared to control. In chronic test, the cumulative mortality was 22.2% with 0.1 μg L -1 clotrimazole treatment and 21.7% with 1 μg L -1 amiodarone. The whole body length and the biomass were significantly decreased and developmental stages significantly delayed by both pharmaceuticals. The results of our study suggest that clotrimazole exerted adverse effects on larvae of X. tropicalis at environmentally relevant concentrations. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Qinqin L.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Qinqin L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qiao C.,Changzhou Environmental Monitoring Center | Jiancai D.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Weiping H.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2015

An understanding of the characteristics of pollutants on impervious surfaces is essential to estimate pollution loads and to design methods to minimize the impacts of pollutants on the environment. In this study, simulated rainfall equipment was constructed to investigate the pollutant discharge process and the influence factors of urban surface runoff (USR). The results indicated that concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) appeared to be higher in the early period and then decreased gradually with rainfall duration until finally stabilized. The capacity and particle size of surface dust, rainfall intensity and urban surface slopes affected runoff pollution loads to a variable extent. The loads of TP, TN and COD showed a positive relationship with the surface dust capacity, whereas the maximum TSS load appeared when the surface dust was 0.0317 g.cm-2. Smaller particle sizes (<0.125 mm) of surface dust generated high TN, TP and COD loads. Increases in rainfall intensity and surface slope enhanced the pollution carrying capacity of runoff, leading to higher pollution loads. Knowledge of the influence factors could assist in the management of USR pollution loads. © IWA Publishing 2015. Source

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