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Changsha, China

Yang C.,Central South University | Jin K.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Tong Y.,Changsha Central Hospital | Cho W.C.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital
Medical Oncology | Year: 2015

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in cancer growth, self-renewal, metastasis, recurrence and radio/chemotherapy. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we explore the roles of CSCs in cancer’s relapse and progression and discuss the biomarkers of CSCs to predict clinical outcome and their diagnostic potential. The different approaches of CSC therapies are also reviewed, including cytotoxic, radiation, differentiation and targeting signaling pathways. We also discuss the challenge of targeting CSCs in cancer therapy. In addition, non-coding RNAs in CSC therapies are also discussed. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Guo X.,Central South University | Guo X.,Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College | Yin J.,Changsha Central Hospital | Jiang Y.,Central South University
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2014

Skull metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is reported rarely. In addition, solitary skull metastasis as the first symptom of HCC is reported even less. Here, we reported a case of solitary skull metastasis as the first symptom of HCC and reviewed the literature on skull metastasis. A 49-year-old male patient was admitted to Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College with a painless parietal-occipital scalp mass, and he denied any history of hepatic disease. A cranial computed tomography demonstrated a hypervascular enhancement with osteolytic change in the right parietal-occipital region, cranial magnetic resonance imaging indicated a highly enhanced and osteolytic skull tumor, and abdominal computed tomography showed a huge tumor in the liver. The other examinations showed no other metastases. Laboratory data showed no liver dysfunction while hepatitis B surface antigen was positive, and alpha fetal protein level was high. A craniectomy was performed and the mass was totally removed. The histological diagnosis was skull metastasis from HCC. The patient was subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. In a review of published literature, the incidence of skull metastasis from HCC in the period between 1990 and 2011 has significantly increased. The misdiagnosis rate of skull metastases as the first symptom from HCC was high. Therefore, it is necessary to give each patient with a scalp mass that has invaded the skull a liver ultrasound or computed tomography scan. On the other hand, we found that metastases that occurred in the calvaria site were more frequent than those that occurred in the skull base and facial skeleton. This may be worthy of further investigation in the future. © 2014 Guo et al. Source

Zhang J.,Central South University | Jia G.,Central South University | Liu Q.,Central South University | Hu J.,Changsha Central Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Immunology | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs have been shown to be important regulators of immune homeostasis as patients with aberrant microRNA expression appeared to be more susceptible to autoimmune diseases. We recently found that miR-146a was up-regulated in activated B cells in response to rat acetylcholine receptor (AChR) α-subunit 97-116 peptide, and this up-regulation was significantly attenuated by AntagomiR-146a. Our data also demonstrated that silencing miR-146a with its inhibitor AntagomiR-146a effectively ameliorated clinical myasthenic symptoms in mice with ongoing experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Furthermore, multiple defects were observed after miR-146a was knocked down in B cells, including decreased anti-R97-116 antibody production and class switching, reduced numbers of plasma cells, memory B cells and B-1 cells, and weakened activation of B cells. Previously, miR-146a has been identified as a nuclear factor-κB-dependent gene and predicted to base pair with the tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) genes to regulate the immune response. However, our study proved that miR-146a inhibition had no effect on the expression of TRAF6 and IRAK1 in B cells. This result suggests that the function of miR-146a in B cells does not involve these two target molecules. We conclude that silencing miR-146a exerts its therapeutic effects by influencing the B-cell functions that contribute to the autoimmune pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Zhao Z.,Hunan Normal University | Hu J.,Changsha Central Hospital | Gao X.,Hunan Normal University | Liang H.,Hunan Normal University | Liu Z.,Hunan Normal University
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2014

The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by specialized brain endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions, strictly regulates paracellular permeability to maintain an optimal extracellular environment for brain homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to alter the integrity of the BBB in sepsis, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the disruption of the BBB in LPS-induced sepsis and to determine whether the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) prevents LPS-induced BBB dysfunction. The exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) to LPS (1. μg/ml) for 4 to 24. h a week dramatically increased the permeability of the BBB in parallel with the lowered expression levels of occludin and claudin-5, which are essential to maintain tight junctions in HBMECs. In addition, LPS significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions. All effects induced by LPS in HBVMCs were reversed by adenoviral overexpression of superoxide dismutase, inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase by apocynin or gain-function of AMPK by adenoviral overexpression of constitutively active mutant (AMPK-CA) or by 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside (AICAR). Finally, the upregulation of AMPK by either AMPK-CA or AICAR abolished the levels of LPS-enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase subunit protein expressions. We conclude that AMPK activation improves the integrity of the BBB disrupted by LPS through suppressing the induction of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in HBMECs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Chen B.-L.,Central South University | Peng J.,Central South University | Li Q.-F.,Central South University | Yang M.,Hunan Childrens Hospital | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

AIM: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) on Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum)-induced hepatic fibrosis in BALB/C mice.METHODS: Sixty BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group (group A, n = 20), model group (group B, n = 20) and BMP-7 treated group (group C, n = 20). The mice in group B and group C were abdominally infected with S. japonicum cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatic fibrosis model. The mice in group C were administered human recombinant BMP-7. Liver samples were extracted from mice sacrificed at 9 and 15 wk after modeling. Hepatic histopathological changes were assessed using Masson's staining. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) and Smad7 protein levels and localization were measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and their mRNA expressions were detected by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: The schistosomal hepatic fibrosis mouse model was successfully established, as the livers of mice in group B and group C showed varying degrees of typical schistosomal hepatopathologic changes such as egg granuloma and collagen deposition. The degree of collagen deposition in group C was higher than that in group A (week 9: 22.95 ± 6.66 vs 2.02 ± 0.76; week 15: 12.84 ± 4.36 vs 1.74 ± 0.80; P < 0.05), but significantly lower than that in group B (week 9: 22.95 ± 6.66 vs 34.43 ± 6.96; week 15: 12.84 ± 4.36 vs 18.90 ± 5.07; P < 0.05) at both time points. According to immunohistochemistry data, the expressions of α-SMA, TGF-β1 and pSmad2/3 protein in group C were higher than those in group A (α-SMA: week 9: 21.24 ± 5.73 vs 0.33 ± 0.20; week 15: 12.42 ± 4.88 vs 0.34 ± 0.27; TGF-β1: week 9: 37.00 ± 13.74 vs 3.73 ± 2.14; week 15: 16.71 ± 9.80 vs 3.08 ± 2.35; pSmad2/3: week 9: 12.92 ± 4.81 vs 0.83 ± 0.48; week 15: 7.87 ± 4.09 vs 0.90 ± 0.45; P < 0.05), but significantly lower than those in group B (α-SMA: week 9: 21.24 ± 5.73 vs 34.39 ± 5.74; week 15: 12.42 ± 4.88 vs 25.90 ± 7.01; TGF-β1: week 9: 37.00 ± 13.74 vs 55.66 ± 14.88; week 15: 16.71 ± 9.80 vs 37.10 ± 12.51; pSmad2/3: week 9: 12.92 ± 4.81 vs 19.41 ± 6.87; week 15: 7.87 ± 4.09 vs 13.00 ± 4.98; P < 0.05) at both time points; the expression of Smad7 protein in group B was higher than that in group A and group C at week 9 (8.46 ± 3.95 vs 1.00 ± 0.40 and 8.46 ± 3.95 vs 0.77 ± 0.42; P < 0.05), while there were no differences in Smad7 expression between the three groups at week 15 (1.09 ± 0.38 vs 0.97 ± 0.42 vs 0.89 ± 0.39; P > 0.05). Although minor discrepancies were observed, the results of RT-PCR and Western blotting were mainly consistent with the immunohistochemical results. CONCLUSION: Exogenous BMP-7 significantly decreased the degree of hepatic fibrosis in both the acute and chronic stages of hepato-schistosomiasis, and the regulatory mechanism may involve the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved. Source

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