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Zhou S.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zhou S.,Changzhou University | Yu Y.,Changzhou University | Wang S.,Changzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2014

The establishment of the natural gas hydrate formation model under the system of pipe flow is of significance to hydrate slurry transportation, pipeline gas hydrate prevention and control, and the application of hydrate- related technologies. In view of this, according to a great number of domestic and foreign literatures, few studies have been found about the said model and the existing models are mostly based upon the theory of hydrate formation in the static reactor, such as driving force model, nucleation rate model, induction time model and hydrate growth model, etc. Many scholars use these models to calculate the rate of hydrate formation at a single pipe cross section with a high calculation accuracy. However, the existing models for predicting the characteristics of hydrate formation under the system of pipe flow are not mature enough so that further studies are still needed on the hydrate formation mechanism under the system of pipe flow and the impacts of environmental temperature changes, additives and the flow interface on the gas-liquid mass transfer in line pipes, etc. Considering the dynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer and other factors, the hydrate formation model under the system of pipe flow is the key to the problem of predicting hydrate formation in such a case. Source

Zhou S.-D.,Changzhou University | Yu Y.-S.,Changzhou University | Zhang J.,Changzhou University | Wang S.-L.,Changzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2014

Efficient generation of hydrate is of great significance to the industrialization of hydrate technology. The hydrate formation process strengthed by nanofluid is analyzed and summarized. Nanofluids can greatly strengthen the heat transfer in the process of the hydrate formation. Factors influencing the thermal conductivity of nanofluids mainly include the concentration of the nanoparticles, the physical properties of nanparticles itself, the size of the nanoparticles, the dispersion stability of nanofluid solid particles, the speed of nanofluid flow in the pipeline and turbulent degree. In addition, nanoparticles can greatly strengthen the mass transfer in the process of the hydrate formation. Transportation function, anti-bubble mixing mechanism, polymerization mechanism and the boundary layer infiltration mechanism are used to explain this phenomenon. However, the specific promotion mechanism is still unclear. Related research is still in its infancy. Various aspects are still not mature. The establishment of the basic theory is proposed as the main job in the future. Source

Cheng G.,Changjiang Yangzhong Electrical Desalting Equipment Co. | Li H.,Changjiang Yangzhong Electrical Desalting Equipment Co. | Liu J.,Changjiang Yangzhong Electrical Desalting Equipment Co. | Wang H.,Changjiang Yangzhong Electrical Desalting Equipment Co.
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2013

By using Merey16 heavy crude oil with high water and salt content and high acid value as a research object, the effects of water addition amount, electric field intensity and processing time, temperature and demulsifier amount on the desalting and dewatering were examined. Under the optimized desalting and dewatering parameters, the diameter change and distribution of water droplet in the crude oils before and after desalting and dewatering were analyzed by the microphotographic method. The results showed that the optimal conditions for the desalting and dewatering of Merey 16 heavy crude oil were temperature of 130°C, water(adjust pH value to 5.0 with glacial acetic acid) addition mass fraction of 7%, combined electric strength and its corresponding processing time of 450-900-1300 V/cm and 9-6-8 min, AR36 demulsifier mass fraction of 20 μg/g and desalting and dewatering processing stage of 3, under which the salt (NaCl) mass concentration and water mass fraction of processed crude oil were 2.7 mg/L and 0.05%. Compared with the untreated crude oil, the object amount, average perimeter and area of water droplet in the processed crude oil were significantly reduced and the diameter distribution of droplet was the normal distribution. Source

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