Fucheng D.,China University of Petroleum - East China |
Jingen D.,China University of Petroleum - East China |
Ying Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China |
Lihua W.,Changjiang University |
Wei Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China
SOCAR Proceedings | Year: 2012
Through the research of current methods of mechanical sand control and gravel packed sand control, we find that the gravel packed sand control method is more effective, with longer period of validity, and less sensitive to the shale content, which make it capable of obtaining relatively high and stable productivity after commission. However the operational cost of this method is also higher than many other common mechanical sand control methods, whose field well completion operations are easer and have lower expenditure. The paper compares the advantages of gravel packed sand control, wire wrapped screen (WWS) and mesh screen (MS), develops gravel pre-packed sand control screen. Appraisal experiments have been conducted to test the effectiveness of the various sand control screens. Based on the experimental results, we find that the greater the gravel size, the more serious the sand invasion phenomenon becomes. When the gravel size is smaller, fluid specific productivity index increases and the bigger the gravel pre-packed thickness, the greater the specific fluid productivity index. When the thickness reaches 30 mm and above, the increase of fluid productivity index per meter is still small. So gravel pre-packed sand control screen is proposed with optimum packing of 30 mm of gravel thickness, 20-40 meshes of gravel size. Compared with commonly used premium screen in the field, productivity is increased by approximatley 3.23 times, moreover, its sand control ability is much better than current screens.
Liu T.,Harbin Medical University |
Gao H.,Harbin Medical University |
Yang M.,Harbin Medical University |
Zhao T.,Changjiang University |
And 2 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014
Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) is an apoptosis regulator proven to have an important function in the proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and progression of malignancies. In this study, we investigated the clinical role of TNFAIP8 overexpression in endometrial cancer (EC) and determined the relationship of TNFAIP8 with the proliferative antigen Ki-67 and metastasis-related gene matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) in 225 tumor specimens by immunohistochemistry and western blot, in order to elucidate more information on the role of TNFAIP8 protein with regard to the pathogenesis of EC. An association was observed between TNFAIP8 overexpression and clinicopathologic factors, such as advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P<0.001), higher histologic grade (P=0.017), deep myometrial invasion (P=0.030), lymphovascular space invasion (P=0.011), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), and recurrence. Furthermore, TNFAIP8 overexpression was strongly correlated with MMP9 and Ki-67 expression in the progression of ECs. Patients with high expression of TNFAIP8 (P<0.001 for both) and Ki-67 (P=0.007 and P=0.008) had poor overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) rates. MMP9 overexpression did not affect survival outcomes (P>0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that TNFAIP8 (P=0.029) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.022) were independent factors of DFS in patients with EC. These findings suggested that TNFAIP8 may be used as a prognostic marker for the recurrence of EC, and its promotion of the proliferation and metastasis in EC may be due to its mediation of Ki-67 and MMP9. © 2014 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).
Sun S.L.,Guangdong Ocean University |
Chen J.F.,Changjiang University |
Chen J.F.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing |
Zheng J.J.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics |
Liu W.H.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Science in China, Series D: Earth Sciences | Year: 2010
In the Tarim Basin, black shale series at the bottom of Cambrian is one of the important marine facies hydrocarbon source rocks. This research focuses on the analysis of the isotope of noble gas of 11 cherts. The R/Ra ratio of chert in the Keping area is 0.032-0.319, and 40Ar/36Ar is 338-430. In Quruqtagh the R/Ra ratio is 0. 44-10. 21, and 40Ar/36Ar is 360-765. The R/Ra ratio of chert increases with 40Ar/36Ar from the west to the east accordingly. They have evolved from the crust source area to the mantle source area in a direct proportion. Surplus argon 40ArE in chert is in direct proportion to the R/Ra ratio, indicating that it has the same origin of excess argon as in fluid and mantle source helium. Comparison of the R/Ra ratios between the west and the east shows that the chert in the eastern part formed from the activity system of the bottom hydrothermal venting driven by the mantle source, where the material and energy of crust and mantle had a strong interaction in exchange; whereas in the western part, chert deposited from the floating of hydrothermal plume undersea bottom, which is far away from the centre of activities of the hydrothermal fluid of ocean bottom. In addition, from noble gas isotope composition of chert, it is suggested that the ocean anoxia incident happened at the black shale of the Cambrian bottom probably because of the large-scaled ocean volcanoes and the following hydrothermal activities. © 2009 Science in China Press and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Mi J.,China National Petroleum Corporation |
Mi J.,Changjiang University |
Zhang S.,China National Petroleum Corporation |
Zhang S.,Changjiang University |
And 2 more authors.
Organic Geochemistry | Year: 2014
Closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a coal sample with a maturity of 0.57. %. Ro using gold tubes pressured to 10. MPa, 25. MPa, 50. MPa, 75. MPa and 100. MPa to investigate the influence of increasing pressure on gas generation. The variation of gaseous components generated by coal, the H/C atomic ratio and the vitrinite reflectance of pyrolysis residues with pressure and temperature indicate that pressure does not linearly impact gas generation from coal. Pressure has no effect on primary gas generation, but it does affect secondary gas generation. Retardation of secondary generation is highest at 50. MPa. Our investigations reveal that previously published and partly opposing results about the effect of pressure on hydrocarbon generation can be mainly explained by the difference in the pressure range under which those experiments were conducted. Our experimental results demonstrate that hydrocarbon generation is generally least retarded at pressures exceeding 75. MPa. Nevertheless, hydrocarbon generation in natural systems usually occurs at pressures of 10-60. MPa (1-6. km burial depth) and might therefore be secondarily controlled by pressure retardation effects. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.