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Dachang Shandao, China

A 21-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after incidental detection of a left renal lesion on ultrasound scan. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a moderately enhanced lesion in the left kidney and a round mass with slight enhancement in the retroperitoneum. FDG PET/CT imaging was performed for whole-body survey, showing increased tracer accumulation in both the left renal and the retroperitoneal lesions. Left renal cell carcinoma with retroperitoneal metastasis was suspected. Synchronous pure epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the left kidney and retroperitoneal schwannoma were diagnosed by pathology. This case highlights that epithelioid angiomyolipoma should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in renal lesions with increased FDG uptake. Source

Intense FDG uptake of the mesenteric brown adipose tissue (BAT) is rare. We present a case of benign retroperitoneal pheochromocytoma showing multiple hypermetabolic regions corresponding with common locations of BAT. Furthermore, the mesenteric region showed intense FDG uptake, with SUVmax of 10.6. FDG PET/CT findings of this case supports the previous theories that the incidence of BAT may be higher in patients with pheochromocytoma than in patients without, and the intra-abdominal fat of human adults, including the omental fat, which is brown adipose tissue in infancy, becomes reactivated in the presence of high circulating noradrenaline concentrations. Source

Song Q.-X.,Changhai Hospital
Nature Reviews Urology | Year: 2014

Urinary incontinence adversely affects quality of life and results in an increased financial burden for the elderly. Accumulating evidence suggests a connection between neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lower urinary tract function, particularly with regard to normal physiological function and the pathophysiological mechanisms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). The interaction between BDNF and glutamate receptors affects both bladder and external urethral sphincter function during micturition. Clinical findings indicate reduced BDNF levels in antepartum and postpartum women, potentially correlating with postpartum SUI. Experiments with animal models demonstrate that BDNF is decreased after simulated childbirth injury, thereby impeding the recovery of injured nerves and the restoration of continence. Treatment with exogenous BDNF facilitates neural recovery and the restoration of continence. Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, used to treat both depression and SUI, result in enhanced BDNF levels. Understanding the neurophysiological roles of BDNF in maintaining normal urinary function and in the pathogenesis of SUI and BPS/IC could lead to future therapies based on these mechanisms. Source

Dong A.,Changhai Hospital
Clinical nuclear medicine | Year: 2014

Common bile duct (CBD) tuberculosis is rare. A 39-year-old woman was referred because of a 5-month history of abdominal pain. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed dilatation of the distal CBD with irregularly thickened wall. Enhanced CT revealed enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake of the CBD lesion and several retroperitoneal lymph nodes with slight FDG uptake. CBD cholangiocarcinoma with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis was suspected. CBD tuberculosis was confirmed by endoluminal biopsy. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal biliary FDG accumulation, particularly in tuberculosis endemic areas. Source

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in East Asia. Gene therapy is a potential approach for treating HCC. An efficient and safe gene delivery method is a crucial factor for HCC gene therapy. In recent years, gene delivery systems, including viral and non-viral gene vectors, bacteria, and physical methods, have undergone substantial development. Among them, various non-viral vectors have been studied widely and in detail because they are relatively safe and have a high capacity. In this review, we focus on current and emerging HCC delivery techniques and address the challenges involved in the use and improvement of non-viral vectors. Source

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