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Patel A.I.,University of California at San Francisco | Hecht K.,California Food Policy Advocates | Hampton K.E.,ChangeLab Solutions | Grumbach J.M.,University of California at San Francisco | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives. We examined free drinking water access in schools. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional interviews with administrators from 240 California public schools from May to November 2011 to examine the proportion of schools that met excellent water access criteria (i.e., location, density, type, maintenance, and appeal of water sources), school-level characteristics associated with excellent water access, and barriers to improvements. Results. No schools met all criteria for excellent water access. High schools and middle schools had lower fountain:student ratios than elementary schools (odds ratio [OR] = 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.20; OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.70). Rural schools were more likely to offer a nonfountain water source than city schools (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.74, 14.70). Newer schools were more likely to maintain water sources than older schools (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 1.00). Schools that offered free water in food service areas increased from pre-to postimplementation of California's school water policy (72%-83%; P < .048). Barriers to improving school water included cost of programs and other pressing concerns. Conclusions. Awareness of the benefits related to school drinking water provision and funding may help communities achieve excellence in drinking water access. Source

Curtis C.,Cigarette Butt Pollution Project | Novotny T.E.,San Diego State University | Lee K.,Simon Fraser University | Freiberg M.,William Mitchell College of Law | McLaughlin I.,ChangeLab Solutions
Tobacco Control | Year: 2016

Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Source

McClintock N.,Portland State University | Pallana E.,Oakland Food Policy Council | Wooten H.,ChangeLab Solutions
Land Use Policy | Year: 2014

As interest in urban agriculture sweeps the country, municipalities are struggling to update, code to meet public demands. The proliferation of urban livestock-especially chickens, rabbits, bees, and goats-has posed particular regulatory challenges. Scant planning scholarship on urban livestock focuses mostly on how cities regulate animals, but few studies attempt to characterize urban livestock, ownership and management practices in the US in relation to these regulations. Our study addresses this gap. Using a web-based survey distributed via a snowball technique, we received responses from 134 livestock owners in 48 US cities, revealing the following: why they keep livestock; what kind of, livestock they keep and how many; the proximity of their livestock to property lines and dwellings; the extent to which they raise animals for meat; how they manage waste and other possible nuisances or public health risks; and their interest in exchanging animal products through sale and barter. We also examine whether such practices conform to the regulatory context. Results suggest that urban livestock ownership is more akin to pet ownership and should therefore not be restricted under planning codes as if it were a commercial-scale agricultural activity. Given the diversity of livestock ownership practices and lot sizes, we recommend that planners consider the following when developing urban livestock codes: (1) more appropriate setbacks and animal limits per lot; (2), promotion of high standards for animal welfare; (3) addressing sales and slaughter; and (4), making regulations more visible to the public. We, conclude by laying out an agenda for future research on urban livestock regulation and management. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kristensen A.H.,Partnership for Prevention | Flottemesch T.J.,HealthPartners Institute for Research and Education | Maciosek M.V.,HealthPartners Institute for Research and Education | Jenson J.,Partnership for Prevention | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Results The microsimulation predicted that afterschool physical activity programs would reduce obesity the most among children aged 6-12 years (1.8 percentage points) and the advertising ban would reduce obesity the least (0.9 percentage points). The SSB excise tax would reduce obesity the most among adolescents aged 13-18 years (2.4 percentage points). All three policies would reduce obesity more among blacks and Hispanics than whites, with the SSB excise tax reducing obesity disparities the most.Conclusions All three policies would reduce childhood obesity prevalence by 2032. However, a national $0.01/ounce SSB excise tax is the best option.Background Childhood obesity prevalence remains high in the U.S., especially among racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Federal policy is important in improving public health given its broad reach. Information is needed about federal policies that could reduce childhood obesity rates and by how much.Purpose To estimate the impact of three federal policies on childhood obesity prevalence in 2032, after 20 years of implementation.Methods Criteria were used to select the three following policies to reduce childhood obesity from 26 recommended policies: afterschool physical activity programs, a $0.01/ounce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax, and a ban on child-directed fast food TV advertising. For each policy, the literature was reviewed from January 2000 through July 2012 to find evidence of effectiveness and create average effect sizes. In 2012, a Markov microsimulation model estimated each policy's impact on diet or physical activity, and then BMI, in a simulated school-aged population in 2032. © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved. Source

Winig B.D.,ChangeLab Solutions | Spengler J.O.,University of Florida | Etow A.M.,ChangeLab Solutions
Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics | Year: 2015

Schools should embrace shared use and Safe Routes to School (SRTS) initiatives to improve student health. Fear of liability, however, has made many schools reluctant to support these efforts despite their proven benefits. This paper discusses school administrators' concerns about liability and identifies four strategies to help manage their fear. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc. Source

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