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Zhang J.-L.,Beijing Forestry University | Cui G.-F.,Beijing Forestry University | Huang X.-T.,Changbai Mountain Academy of science | Guo Z.-L.,Beijing Forestry University
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

Pinus sylvestrisformis population was investigated by the typical sampling survey method in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve to reveal the living conditions of natural P. sylvestrisformis, which was listed at first class national protected plant, and population size and age structure was analyzed. Meanwhile, the population dynamics in the future was predicted by using time sequence model. Results showed that there were 36293 individuals estimated in the nature reserve, distributing in the following 6 plant communities: Quercus mongolica, Abies nephrolepis-P. sylvestrisformis, Betula platyphylla, B. platyphylla-A. nephrolepis, P. koraiensis-P. Sylvestrisformis and Larix olgensis-Picea jezoensis. The differential degree among P. sylvestrisformis individuals was obvious in the B. Platyphylla community. As to age structure, individuals of age class I, II, III, IV and V existed together. Most of individuals were at age class I, accounting for 64.29% of total, but the ones above V relatively lacked in the B. Platyphylla community. There were a small amount of individuals of age class I and II lived in B. latyphylla-A. nephrolepis community. In the rest of the 4 plant communities, individuals above age class V were dominant, while those of class I, II and III were insufficient. After 30 or 60 years, the P. sylvestrisformis individuals of age class II, III in the B. platyphylla community would gain the potential recovery capability. Future more, 90 or 150 years later, those above class IV would increase, and the population would keep stable. For other 5 plant communities, the P. Sylvestrisformis population would present the decline trend, showing increase of individuals of age class V and above, while the decrease of class IV and below. To well protect P. Sylvestrisformis population and maintain its stability and growth, specific conservation measurements should be put into effect by creating environments suitable for individuals of every age class, considering to the characteristics not only 6 plant communities but also the P. Sylvestrisformis population construction.

Qi X.,Jilin University | Qi X.,Qiqihar University | Wang E.,Jilin University | Xing M.,Jilin University | And 3 more authors.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

To investigate bacterial communities between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the wild medicinal plant Rumex patientia of Jilin, China, small subunit rRNAs (16S rDNA) from soil metagenome were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to the domain bacteria and analysed by cloning and sequencing. The relative proportion of bacterial communities in rhizosphere soils was similar to non-rhizosphere soils in five phylogenetic groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes). But there were differences in five other phylogenetic groups (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Verrucomicrobia and Unclassified bacteria). Over 97.24 % of the sequenced clones were found to be unique to rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, while 2.76 % were shared by both of them. Our results indicate that there are differences in the composition and proportion of bacterial communities between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Furthermore, the unique bacterial clones between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the wild medicinal plant R. patientia have obvious differences. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Liu Y.-F.,Jilin University | Liu Y.-F.,Beihua University | Xing M.,Jilin University | Zhao W.,Jilin University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Rhododendron aureum Georgi (Ericaceae) is a perennial alpine shrub endemic to Changbai Mountain in China. We used ISSR and RAPD markers to describe the diversity and genetic structure within and among four natural populations located at different altitudes. DNA from 66 individuals was amplified with ten ISSR markers and seven RAPD markers. High genetic diversity was observed by these two techniques at the species level. The genetic diversity of populations increased with altitudinal gradients from low to high. The coefficient of gene differentiation (G ST 0.3652 in ISSR and 0.2511 in RAPD) and AMOVA analysis revealed that most genetic diversity was distributed within populations (61.96% in ISSR and 70.23% in RAPD). The estimate of gene flow based on G ST was 0.8690 in ISSR and 1.4910 in RAPD. The UPGMA clustering results using ISSR and RAPD showed that all individuals from the same altitude were gathered together, and the two populations (TYD2a and YHLa) from middle altitudes always clustered together. Compared with populations from different altitudes, similar genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation were obtained from populations at the same altitudes, as revealed by ISSR markers. In addition to the reproductive strategy of R. aureum, these data highlight that local environmental conditions may play an important role in shaping the diversity and genetic structure of this species. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Wang Y.,China Academy of Transportation Science | Piao Z.-J.,Changbai Mountain Academy of science | Guan L.,China Academy of Transportation Science | Kong Y.-P.,China Academy of Transportation Science
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

With the large-scale expansion of highway construction in ecologically sensitive area, wildlife conservation has become an urgent and important topic during the highway infrastructure construction and operation. However, few studies have been made on the wildlife conservation along the highways in China. By using sample line method and infrared camera monitoring, a field survey from November 2008 to February 2012 was conducted on the road-kill, road effect zone for wildlife, wildlife crossing highway, and wildlife crossing structure along the Ring Changbai Mountain Scenic Highway, which is adjacent to the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve. The results showed that within the 500 m roadside of the Highway, the species richness of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians accounted for 42. 86%, 24. 78%, 66. 67%, and 66. 67% of the wildlife species richness in the Nature Reserve, respectively. Among the wildlife, 11 species were national protective species, 2 of which were of first-class, and 9 were of second-class. A total of 3475 wildlife belonging to 59 species were killed by the vehicles on this Highway, and the road-kill rate was averagely 61. 6 individuals · 100 km". In terms of magnitude, amphibians had the highest mortality (2996 individuals). The species richness of birds and mammals was not impacted by the Highway, but there was a concentrative trend about the frequency of these wildlife activities within the 200 m roadside. The 10 surveys in winter indicated that a total of 13 species were found crossing the Highway for 502 times, and Siberian Weasel had the highest crossing frequency (169 times). When crossing the Highway, the wildlife preferred to the highway section with the roadside vegetation being primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest. There were 6 medium and large sizes species using bridges and culverts to cross the Highway, and the utilization rate of the bridges and culverts was 88% and 44. 2%, respectively. Vegetation type, human disturbance, and size of wildlife crossing structure all had significant effects on the utilization rate. Some countermeasures for protecting the wildlife were provided correspondingly.

Li X.H.,Changbai Mountain Academy of science | Li X.H.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Yu J.J.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Zhang P.,Northeast Forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

Using camera traps can provide valuable information for estimating wildlife density, and further contributes to conservation activities. For species that can be individually recognized, such as tigers and leopards, camera trapping combined with mark-recapture techniques can provide reliable estimates of population density. However, most species cannot be individually recognized, and no sophisticated models are available for accurate estimation of their densities. At present, the only available model is Rowcliffe et al.'s gas molecule movement model, which assumes animals behave like ideal gas particles, moving randomly and independently of one another. Such a model is not appropriate for either territorial or social species, or elusive species that usually move along trails. We developed a novel method to estimate the population density of animals that cannot be individually recognized. This method is based on the simulation of animal movement and pseudo camera trapping processes at a series of population densities. We matched results of real camera trapping with those of simulated camera trapping to estimate population density. The method was coded using the R language. We deployed 25 cameras (LTL5120) in the 25 hm2 forest dynamics plot in the Changbaishan National Nature Reserve, China for 41 days in the winter of 2011 and 40 days in the winter of 2012. The Siberian chipmunk (Eutamias sibiricus)and Korean field mouse (Apodemus peninsulae) are two dominant species in the plot. Animal movement was simulated by setting a starting location and a series of moving directions and step lengths. The starting location was a randomly selected point in the survey area. The direction of the first movement, θ, was also randomly selected from a range of 0-2π. The length and angle of deflection of subsequent movements followed normal distributions N (1 m, 0.1 m) and N (0, 30 degrees), respectively. We also defined a home range for each species by forcing the simulated animal to return to the starting location (assumed to be a mouse hole) at a rate of D/50, where D is the distance in meters between the current and original locations. The simulations of animal movement were run under a series of population densities. We matched the simulated results and the observed photo records using the random forest algorithm to estimate the population density and its confidence intervals. This analysis determined that the density of the Siberian chipmunk is 1.96hm2, and 2.71hm2 for the Korean field mouse. Our method has a number of limitations. First, the movement pattern of the target species must be known. In this study, we selected movement parameters (step length, angle of deflection, home range size, etc.) by visually checking the simulated footprint chains, which should be replaced by field tracking. Second, the cameras must be deployed in the field systematically, at regular intervals, so that virtual camera trapping can be simulated accordingly. In spite of the limitations, this method can provide reliable estimates for population density for animals that cannot be individually recognized. Our new method can be used for other camera trapping practices, as long as the movement pattern of the species is known. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.

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