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Chen C.-C.,Chang Gung University | Liu H.-P.,Chang Gung University | Chao M.,Chang Gung University | Liang Y.,Chang Gung University | And 4 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a metastasis-prone epithelial cancer. We previously showed that tumor necrosis factor -induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2) is highly expressed in NPC tumor tissues and is correlated with metastasis and poor survival in NPC patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the EBV oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), can transcriptionally induce TNFAIP2 expression via NF-κB. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting revealed that LMP1 induces TNFAIP2 expression through its C-terminal-activating region (CTAR2) domain, which is required for transduction of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain- enhancer of activated B cells) signaling. Inhibition of NF-κB activation or depletion of p65 (a component of NF-κB) by RNA interference abolished the LMP1-induced expression of TNFAIP2, whereas ectopic expression of p65 was sufficient to induce TNFAIP2 expression. Luciferase reporter assays showed that LMP1 transcriptionally induces TNFAIP2 expression through a newly identified NF-κB-binding site within the TNFAIP2 promoter (-3 869 to -3 860 bp). Immunohistochemical analysis of NPC biopsy specimens further revealed a significant correlation between the protein levels of TNFAIP2 and activated p65 (R=0.689, P<0.001), indicating that our findings are clinically relevant. Immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that TNFAIP2 associates with actin and is involved in the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions. Furthermore, transwell migration assays demonstrated that TNFAIP2 contributes to LMP1-induced cell motility. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the regulation of TNFAIP2 and its role in promoting NPC tumor progression. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Hsu C.-K.,Chang Gung University | Lee I.-T.,Chang Gung University | Lin C.-C.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Lin Kou | Lin C.-C.,Chang Gung University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2014

Elevated levels of TNF-α have been detected in the airway fluids, which may induce upregulation of inflammatory proteins. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 proteins can be induced by various cytokines and negatively regulated inflammatory responses. Although TNF-α has been shown to induce SOCS-3 expression, the mechanisms underlying TNF-α-induced SOCS-3 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) remain unclear. Here, we showed that TNF-α induced SOCS-3 expression, which was inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitor of transcription level (actinomycin D), translation level (cycloheximide), JNK1/2 (SP600125), MEK1/2 (U0126), NADPH oxidase (Nox; apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride), or reactive oxygen species (ROS; N-acetyl-L-cysteine) and transfection with siRNA of JNK1, p47phox, p42, Nox2, or human antigen R (HuR). In addition, TNF-α-stimulated JNK1/2 and p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, Nox activation, and ROS generation were inhibited by pretreatment with U0126 or SP600125 and transfection with siRNA of JNK1 or p42. We further showed that TNF-α markedly induced HuR protein expression and translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol, which could stabilize SOCS-3 mRNA. Moreover, TNF-α-enhanced HuR translocation was reduced by transfection with siRNA of p42, JNK1, or p47phox. These results suggested that TNF-α induces SOCS-3 protein expression and mRNA stabilization via a TNFR1/JNK1/2, p42/p44 MAPK/Nox2/ROS-dependent HuR signaling in HTSMCs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to play a key role in inflammation via induction of adhesion molecules and then causes airway and lung injury. Moreover, we also demonstrated that overexpression of SOCS-3 protects against LPS-induced adhesion molecules expression and airway inflammation. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

Chen C.-C.,Chang Gung University | Chen L.-C.,Chang Gung University | Liang Y.,Chang Gung University | Tsang N.-M.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Lin Kou | Chang Y.-S.,Chang Gung University
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2010

High thymidine phosphorylase (TP) expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). NPC is an Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated cancer in which the EBV-encoded oncogene product, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), is expressed in approximately 60% of tumor tissues. However, no previous study has examined whether LMP1 is involved in up-regulating TP expression in NPC tissues. We herein show that LMP1 expression is correlated with TP expression in tumor cells, as examined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. We further show that the CTAR1 and CTAR2 domains of LMP1 mediate TP induction, as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses using LMP1 deletion and site-specific mutants. Mechanistically, LMP1-mediated TP induction is abolished by inhibitors of NF-κB and p38 MAPK, dominant-negative IκB and p38, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK. Clinically, there were significant correlations among the expression levels of TP, activated p65, and phospho-p38 MAPK in NPC biopsy samples. Functionally, LMP1-mediated induction of TP expression enhanced the sensitivity of NPC cells to the chemotherapeutic prodrug, 5'-DFUR. Our results provide new insights into the roles of LMP1-mediated NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in TP induction, potentially suggesting new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of NPC. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Hsu C.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Yi Y.-H.,Chang Gung University | Chang K.-P.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Lin Kou | Chang Y.-S.,Chang Gung University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small RNA molecules that negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes and play critical roles in orchestrating diverse cellular processes. This regulatory mechanism is also exploited by viruses to direct their life cycle and evade the host immune system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that is closely associated with multiple human diseases, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is a highly metastatic type of tumor and is frequently reported in South Asia. Several viral proteins have been found to promote the migration and invasiveness of NPC cells. However, not all tumor tissues express these viral oncoproteins, suggesting that other mechanisms may contribute to the aggressive behavior of NPC tumor cells. A previous sequencing study by our group revealed that the EBV miRNA miR-BART9 was expressed at high levels in all EBV-positive NPC tissues. In the present study, we used gain- and loss-of-function approaches to investigate the effect of miR-BART9 in EBV-negative and EBV-positive NPC cells. We discovered that miR-BART9 promotes the migration and invasiveness of cultured NPC cells. The promigratory activity observed in vitro was manifested as an enhanced metastatic ability in vivo. Computational analysis revealed that miR-BART9 may target E-cadherin, a membrane protein that is pivotal in preserving cell-cell junctions and the epithelial phenotype. Through biochemical assays and functional rescue analysis, we confirmed that miR-BART9 specifically inhibits E-cadherin to induce a mesenchymal-like phenotype and promote the migration of NPC cells. These results indicated that miR-BART9 is a prometastatic viral miRNA and suggested that high levels of miR-BART9 in EBV-positive NPC cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of tumor cells. © 2014 Hsu et al.

Chen L.-C.,Chang Gung University | Wang L.-J.,Chang Gung University | Tsang N.-M.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Lin Kou | Ojcius D.M.,Chang Gung University | And 7 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Inflammasomes sense infection and cellular damage and are critical for triggering inflammation through IL-1β production. In carcinogenesis, inflammasomes may have contradictory roles through facilitating antitumour immunity and inducing oncogenic factors. Their function in cancer remains poorly characterized. Here we show that the NLRP3, AIM2 and RIG-I inflammasomes are overexpressed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and expression levels correlate with patient survival. In tumour cells, AIM2 and RIG-I are required for IL-1β induction by EBV genomic DNA and EBV-encoded small RNAs, respectively, while NLRP3 responds to extracellular ATP and reactive oxygen species. Irradiation and chemotherapy can further activate AIM2 and NLRP3, respectively. In mice, tumour-derived IL-1β inhibits tumour growth and enhances survival through host responses. Mechanistically, IL-1β-mediated anti-tumour effects depend on infiltrated immunostimulatory neutrophils. We show further that presence of tumour-associated neutrophils is significantly associated with better survival in NPC patients. Thus, tumour inflammasomes play a key role in tumour control by recruiting neutrophils, and their expression levels are favourable prognostic markers and promising therapeutic targets in patients. Inflammasomes detect infection and trigger inflammation. The authors find that in Epstein-Barr virusassociated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, inflammasomes recruit neutrophils, which produce IL-1beta and thereby inhibit tumor growth. © 2012 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

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