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Chang-hua, Taiwan

Chen M.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Lai L.-J.,Chang Gang Memorial Hospital | Chen H.-C.,School Health Nurse | Gaete J.,University of Los Andes, Chile
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Health-promoting lifestyle choices of adolescents are closely related to current and subsequent health status. However, parsimonious yet reliable and valid screening tools are scarce. The original 40-item adolescent health promotion (AHP) scale was developed by our research team and has been applied to measure adolescent health-promoting behaviors worldwide. The aim of our study was to examine the psychometric properties of a newly developed short-form version of the AHP (AHP-SF) including tests of its reliability and validity. Methods: The study was conducted in nine middle and high schools in southern Taiwan. Participants were 814 adolescents randomly divided into two subgroups with equal size and homogeneity of baseline characteristics. The first subsample (calibration sample) was used to modify and shorten the factorial model while the second subsample (validation sample) was utilized to validate the result obtained from the first one. The psychometric testing of the AHP-SF included internal reliability of McDonald's omega and Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: The results of the CFA supported a six-factor model and 21 items were retained in the AHP-SF with acceptable model fit. For the discriminant validity test, results indicated that adolescents with lower AHP-SF scores were more likely to be overweight or obese, skip breakfast, and spend more time watching TV and playing computer games. The AHP-SF also showed excellent internal consistency with a McDonald's omega of 0.904 (Cronbach's alpha 0.905) in the calibration group. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that the AHP-SF is a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of adolescent health-promoting behaviors. Primary health care providers and clinicians can use the AHP-SF to assess these behaviors and evaluate the outcome of health promotion programs in the adolescent population. © 2014 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lai L.-J.,Chang Gang Memorial Hospital | Lai L.-J.,Chang Gang University | Lai L.-J.,Chang Gang University | Ho T.-C.,Mackay Memorial Hospital
Anticancer Research | Year: 2011

Background: Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) displays its antiangiogenicity by mechanisms partly involving suppression of the cellular FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme (FLICE)/caspase-8-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) expression in endothelial cells. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) regulate c-FLIP expression in endothelial cells. The effect of PEDF on other cells remains unclear. Materials and Methods: c-FLIP expression was assessed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and immunoblotting. Pharmacological inhibitors were used to examine the involvement of PEDF signaling. Results: PEDF can also down-regulate c-FLIP expression in hepatoma cell line SK-Hep-1. PEDF induced p38 kinase phosphorylation in SK-Hep-1 cells. The effect of PEDF on c-FLIP expression was attenuated by p38 kinase inhibitor, but not JNK inhibitor. In addition, PEDF pretreatment significantly increased the sensitivity of SK-Hep-1 cells to procaspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis induced by ciglitazone. Conclusion: PEDF-induced p38 signaling causes c-FLIP down-regulation in SK-Hep-1. We postulate PEDF has a novel effect on apoptotic inducible activity in hepatoma cells.

Hou Y.-C.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Liu W.-C.,Cardinal Tien Hospital | Liao M.-T.,Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital | Lu K.-C.,Fu Jen Catholic University | And 5 more authors.
Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Aim. The galactose single-point (GSP) test assesses functioning liver mass by measuring the galactose concentration in the blood 1 hour after its administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on short-term and long-term liver function by use of GSP test. Methods. Seventy-four patients on maintenance HD (46 males and 28 females, 60.38 ± 11.86 years) with a mean time on HD of 60.77 ± 48.31 months were studied. The GSP values were compared in two groups: (1) before and after single session HD, and (2) after one year of maintenance HD. Results. Among the 74 HD patient, only the post-HD Cr levels and years on dialysis were significantly correlated with GSP values (r = 0.280, P < 0.05 and r = - 0.240, P < 0.05, resp.). 14 of 74 patients were selected for GSP evaluation before and after a single HD session, and the hepatic clearance of galactose was similar (pre-HD 410 ± 254 g/mL, post-HD 439 ± 298 g/mL, P = 0.49). GSP values decreased from 420.20 ± 175.26 g/mL to 383.40 ± 153.97 g/mL after 1 year maintenance HD in other 15 patients (mean difference: 19.00 ± 37.66 g/mL, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Patients on maintenance HD for several years may experience improvement of their liver function. However, a single HD session does not affect liver function significantly as assessed by the GSP test. Since the metabolism of galactose is dependent on liver blood flow and hepatic functional mass, further studies are needed. © 2014 Yi-Chou Hou et al.

Lai L.-J.,Chang Gang Memorial Hospital | Lai L.-J.,Chang Gang University | Hsu W.-H.,Chang Gang University | Wu A.M.,Chang Gang University | Wu J.H.,Chang Gang University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm)- and observation time (1-7 day)- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer's test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1-10 day)- and FA concentration (20-300 ppm for 5 min exposure)-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2) in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK) activation (pJNK) in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50-200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure) on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva. © 2013 Lai et al.

Juan Y.-C.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Chen C.-M.,Chang Gang Memorial Hospital | Chen S.-H.,Ming Chi University of Technology
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering | Year: 2015

Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease which will increase the risk of fracture. Related studies show that women are much more likely to get osteoporosis than men. In Taiwan, bone mineral density examination (BMD) is not included in basic health examination and needs additional payments. To reduce the healthcare burden on the government and the public, this study proposed a classifier fusion approach to develop an osteoporosis prediction model based on the past health examination data (including the basic health examination and paid BMD examination) for women in Taiwan. The proposed classifier fusion approach integrates genetic algorithm (GA), classifier and voting scheme into a GA-based ensemble classifier (EC) with the consideration of feature selection, parameter optimization and multidimensional forecasting. The results show that GA-based EC with an average classification accuracy rate of 70.43% outperforms individual classifier. Based on prediction results, the high-risk patients will be recommended to subsequently BMD examinations. © 2015 Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers.

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