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The primary source of energy consumption in a vapour compression refrigeration system is a compressor. The possibility of a reduction in the work of compression may leads to enhance the compressor suction and discharge characteristics and the overall performance of the refrigeration system. The present experimental investigation based upon the study of ZnO nanoparticles in a vapour compression refrigeration system using hydrocarbon blend R290/R600a (50/50) as a refrigerant. The zinc oxide nanoparticles are appended with system refrigerant via compressor lubricating oil. The results observed that by using different weight concentrations of nanoparticles in R290/R600a refrigeration system, both the compressor suction and discharge pressures and temperatures were reduced compared to conventional system. The viscosity of mineral oil with the addition of nanoparticles increases. The compressor energy consumption was reduced by 7.48 % using (0.2–1.0) wt% concentrations of nanoparticles. The COP of the refrigeration system has been increased by about 46 % with the addition of nanoparticles. Thus, the ZnO nanoparticles worked efficiently in the R290/R600a refrigeration system. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Kang A.S.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges | Grewal J.S.,Guru Nanak Institutions | Jain D.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges | Kang S.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology | Year: 2012

A rotavator is a motorized cultivator, popularly used to decrease the total time and human efforts in soil preparation. However, under dynamic loading, rotavator blades are subjected to extreme abrasive wear. The objective of this study was to enhance the working life of the rotavator blade in order to decrease the idle time required to reinstate the blade periodically during cultivation. The objective was carried out by means of thermal spray coatings, where the effect of the coatings on the extent of wear and the wear characteristics of the rotavator blades were examined. Three different detonation gun sprayed coatings, namely WC-Co-Cr, Cr 3C 2NiCr and Stellite-21 were compared in this study on high tensile steel rotavator blades. The wear rates of Cr 3C 2NiCr and Stellite-21 coated blades showed significant superiority over the uncoated blade, but not as much as shown by WC-Co-Cr coated blade. © ASM International.


Kaur H.,Punjab Technical University | Talwar R.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges
Proceedings - 2013 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Communication, Control, Signal Processing and Computing Applications, IEEE-C2SPCA 2013 | Year: 2013

The purpose of adaptive filter is to solve the dilemma of fast convergence rate and low mean square error. In the past two decades many adaptive filter algorithms have been presented and have claimed that they have good convergence speed and tracking properties. This paper describes the concept of adaptive noise cancellation, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise or interference. This paper summarizes three promising algorithms and gives a performance comparision via extensive simulation. Step size is the main parameter for the convergence rate and mean square error. The simulation analysis showed that RLS algorithm had faster convergence speed and smaller steady state error compared with basic LMS algorithm.The results shown, for convergence rate with less no of taps is the most difficult phase in signal processing applications for the perfect working of any system. © 2013 IEEE.


Rathee P.,Punjab Technical University | Kamboj A.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges | Sidhu S.,Punjab Technical University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2016

Our key objective was an attempt to apply a novel statistical method intended for designing, optimizing and developing Nisoldipine nano-bioenhancers using Taguchi (3 × 3 = L27) design. This quality improvement orthogonal design array (L27) was used as a mathematical tool to find and study the response prediction of independent as well as significant variables (A = poly-concentration; B = bio-enhancer and C = ratio of organic medium). The array orthogonal (3 × 3 = L27) at each level/spaces has been studied with respect to responses changeable (dependent factors); entrapment enhancement (X; evaluated using particle size; Y). All through experimentally performed runs, the results showed independent variables effect individually or simultaneously on changeable (dependent) variables. It also predicted significant variable via its "better to best" optimized spaces (independent level) and would be considered as novel statistically advanced oral drug delivery vehicle for anti-hypertensive agents. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Singh S.,Punjab Technical University | Talwar R.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges
2015 International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication, ICSC 2015 | Year: 2015

Remotely sensed data is only a key source of detection of Earth's surface changes or Land-Use/Land-Cover (LULC) monitoring. During past decades, a series of effective change detection techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Change Vector Analysis (CVA) and Post Classification Comparison (PCC), have been developed to observe the LULC vicissitudes. All aforesaid techniques performed very well in some situations such as on horizontal land but very rarely experimented on rugged terrain satellite imagery because change detection procedures are very problematic for such study areas. From this perspective, this study comprises the quantitative analysis of different change detection techniques to study LULC changes linked with rugged terrain Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor satellite imagery. In addition to this, necessary pre-processing steps such as geometric correction, radiometric correction and topographic correction for flat surface as well as rugged terrain, have also been summarized to correct the estimated spectral reflectance value. Experiment outcomes confirms that CVA technique has greater potential (achieved accuracy assessment of 90% with Kappa coefficient of 0.8838) than PCC and PCA techniques (achieved accuracy assessment of 78-82% with Kappa coefficient of 0.6358-0.7537, respectively) to analyzed the overall transformed information over rugged terrain MODIS satellite imagery. It is projected that this will efficiently guide the natural hazard forecaster's or algorithm engineer's to precisely perceive the multi-temporal environment changes over Land-Use/Land-Cover rugged terrain. © 2015 IEEE.


Singh S.,Punjab Technical University | Talwar R.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges
2015 International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication, ICSC 2015 | Year: 2015

Remote sensing provides the facility of acquisition of data associated with Earth's surface to observe regular changes. An important characteristic of imaging sensor is resolution which is classified in four different ways: (a) spatial; (b) spectral; (c) radiometric; and (d) temporal. During recent decades, the emergence of multispectral sensors provides the data with enlarged quantity of spectral bands and change in different spectra often correspond to alterations in some vital surface physical parameters. The higher spectral resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor delivers data in 36 different spectral bands at three different spatial resolution to enhance the applications of remote sensing. Additionally, MODIS sensor has great temporal resolution which helps in updating of information on nearly daily basis. Beforehand to any application, various pre-processing procedures must be implemented to the remote sensed imagery to enhance different appropriate features. In case of undulating region imagery, it is important to eliminate the topographic effects such as shadowing, which generally, found in the remotely sensed images acquired from Himalayan region. From this perspective, this paper involves the analysis of impact of topographic correction on multispectral MODIS sensor data of Himalayan region. In the referred study, the base map of study area was derived from Himalayan region in which recover the information is problematic due to presence of topographic effects. Experiment conclusions confirmed that topographic corrections are significant in attaining a better quantification and understanding of a wide variety of procedure occurring in atmosphere and on the Earth surface. Moreover, extensive field investigation beyond that covered in this work is mandatory to assess the exact extent of the impact of the different spectral bands of different satellite sensors on topographic corrections. © 2015 IEEE.


Himani,Global Institute of Management and Emerging Technologies | Sidhu H.S.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges
Proceedings - 2015 2nd IEEE International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communication Engineering, ICACCE 2015 | Year: 2015

Cloud computing is a nascent technology which widely spreads among researchers. It provide users with infrastructure, platform and software as amenity which is effortlessly accessible via Internet. In cloud computing, there are numerous tasks needs to be executed by the existing resources to attain best performance, shortest response time, minimal total time for completion, achieve deadline, utilization of resources etc. Scheduling is a complicated task in cloud computing environment where the aim is to schedule the tasks effectively so as to reduce the turnaround time and improve overall performance. Due to these dissimilar objectives, we need to design, develop a noble scheduling strategy to outperform proper division of tasks on virtual machines. Recently existing scheduling algorithm may work proficiently in some perspective. But they are unable to achieve deadline of task and attain maximum profit. In this paper, new mechanism is proposed which take care of deadline and cost, then scheduled the task according to need. Based on the concept of space-shared scheduling policy, this work presents Cost-deadline Based (CDB) task scheduling algorithm to schedule tasks with Cloud-sim by taking into account several parameters including task profit, task penalty, throughput, provider profit, user loss. © 2015 IEEE.


Singh S.,Chitkara University | Talwar R.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges
2013 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Image Information Processing, IEEE ICIIP 2013 | Year: 2013

Detection of Earth surface changes is essential to monitor regional climatic changes, avalanche hazard analysis and energy balance studies that occurs due to air temperature anomalies. Geographic Information System (GIS) enables such research activities or procedures to carry out through change detection analysis. From this perspective, different change detection techniques have been developed for Land-Use Land-Covered (LULC) region. Among the various change detection techniques, Change Vector Analysis (CVA) has level headed capability of extracting maximum information in terms of overall magnitude of change and the direction of change between multi-temporal multi-spectral bands satellite datasets. Recently developed CVA techniques such as CVA in Posterior Probability Space (CVAPS), Cross Correlogram Spectral Matching (CCSM) based CVA, CVA using enhanced Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Inverse Triangular (IT) Function, and Median CVA (MCVA), are effective LULC change detection tools. This paper presents a systematic survey on recently developed CVA algorithms along with their characteristics, features and shortcomings. This paper also summarized the necessary pre-processing steps such as geometric corrections, atmospheric corrections, radiometric corrections and topographic corrections for flat surface as well as rugged mountain terrain to correct the estimated spectral reflectance value. It is expected that this reviewed paper on different CVA techniques gives an effective guidance to algorithm designers for modifying and developing CVA based change detection techniques that effectively use the diverse and complex remotely sensed data for detection of flat as well as undulating surface changes. © 2013 IEEE.


Bedi P.S.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges | Priyanka S.,SBSPGI
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

In present study the antitoxic activity of garlic was studied in Wistar albino rats. The experimental animals were divided in to four groups each containing six animals. Group I served as normal control. All the other three groups, viz. II, III and IV were first challenged with 7-12 Dimethyl benzanthracene (DMBA). ThereforeWhereas, group III and IV received Indole-3-Carbinol (1μg/kg) and garlic @ 300mg/kg body weight respectively, for four weeks. Group II however received no intervention. After four weeks, all the animals were sacrificed and the effects of the Indole-3-Carbinol and garlic were monitored by assaying the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in liver and kidney homogenates. In addition Serum glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Urea and Creatinine were also studied. The results showed that the difference in total body weight gain was not significant among all the groups. Body weight in group II was find to be reduced than the body weight on zero day. There was significant decrease in SOD and CAT, but significant increase in MDA in both the tissue homogenates. The levels of AST, ALT, ALP, Creatinine and Urea were significantly increased in group II. Reversal effects of DMBA were shown by group IV but they were lower than group III. Cyst formation in liver was observed in group II rats only. Enlargement and paleness of liver was maximum in group II as compared to other treated groups.


Chawla P.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges | Khanna R.,Chandigarh Group of Colleges
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences | Year: 2016

A mathematical neural approach/artificial neural network (ANN) for the design of a swastika-shaped reconfigurable antenna as a feedforward side is proposed. Further design parameter calculations using the reverse procedure of the above method is presented. Neural network computational is one of the optimization methods that could be considered to improve the performance of the device. In this paper, the proposed planar antenna up to the 2nd iteration is simulated using finite element method-based HFSS software. The developed ANN algorithm method allows the optimization of the antenna to be carried out by exchanging repetitive simulations and also provides reduced processing times while still retaining great accuracy as compared to traditional mathematical formulation. The simulated S-parameter (return loss) results of the proposed antenna are verified with the ANN and show good agreement. Furthermore, for proof of concept, the above proposed antenna as well as a swastika-shaped reconfigurable antenna (2nd iteration) with radio frequency microelectromechanical system switches are fabricated and tested using a vector network analyzer. The results presented here show that the antenna works well in the frequency range of 1.5 to 6.5 GHz and resonates on multiple bands. The novelty of the approach described here offers ease of designing the process using the ANN algorithm, maintaining the miniaturization of antenna size, multiband behavior, and utility of the antenna in the mobile terminal. © TÜBİTAK.

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