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South Burlington, VT, United States

Champlain College is a private, co-educational undergraduate college in Burlington, Vermont. Founded in 1878, Champlain offers traditional undergraduate and online undergraduate courses, along with online certificate and degree programs and master's degree programs, in more than 80 subject areas. Champlain enrolls 2,000 undergraduate students from 41 states and 22 countries. Wikipedia.


Jones B.,State Electronic Evidence Branch | Pleno S.,Australian Federal Police | Wilkinson M.,Champlain College
Digital Investigation | Year: 2012

This paper presents a methodology which has been used to address two ubiquitous problems of practising digital forensics in law enforcement, the ever increasing data volume and staff exposure to disturbing material. It discusses how the New South Wales Police Force, State Electronic Evidence Branch (SEEB) has implemented a "Discovery Process". Using random sampling of files and applying statistical estimation to the results, the branch has been able to reduce backlogs from three months to 24 h. The process has the added advantage of reducing staff exposure to child abuse material and providing the courts with an easily interpreted report. The software portion of the Discovery process is contained within the framework of Guidance software's forensic tool, EnCase ©. This is then further customised for the Discovery process by using the EnCase EnScript © language. © 2012 Dykstra & Sherman. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hammad F.,Bishops University | Hammad F.,Champlain College
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

Wald's entropy formula allows one to find the entropy of black holes' event horizon within any diffeomorphism invariant theory of gravity. When applied to general relativity, the formula yields the Bekenstein-Hawking result but, for any other gravitational action that departs from the Hilbert action, the resulting entropy acquires an additional multiplicative factor that depends on the global geometry of the background spacetime. On the other hand, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) has extensively been recently used to investigate corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula, with the conclusion that the latter always comes multiplied by a factor that depends on the area of the event horizon. We show, by considering the case of an f(R)-modified gravity, that the usual black hole entropy derivation based on the GUP might be modified in such a way that the two methods yield the same corrections to Bekenstein-Hawking formula. The procedure turns out to be an interesting method for seeking modified gravity theories. Two different versions of the GUP are used, and it is found that only one of them yields a viable modified gravity model. Conversely, it is possible to find a general formulation of the GUP that would reproduce Wald entropy formula for any f(R) theory of gravity. © 2015 Published by the American Physical Society.


Hall B.R.,Champlain College
International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society | Year: 2013

This essay is a discussion of the relationship between technology and thinking. Technology is defined as information, communication and media technologies. Though philosophical in nature, this paper is written by a technologist for technologists in an effort to spur engaged thinking about technology, innovation and what it means to be human. Woven into the discussion are the issues of what technology is, happiness in relation to technology, and the conflict between intellect, innovation, frame and being. The argument is made that technology is a deintellectualizing surrogate. Though society may be happy with technology, both society and technologists need to be reminded to truly think. Copyright © 2013, Common Ground.


Hammad F.,Champlain College
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

Although the (varying power)-law modified gravity toy model has the attractive feature of unifying the early- and late-time expansions of the Universe, thanks to the peculiar dependence of the scalar field's potential on the scalar curvature, the model still suffers from the fine-tuning problem when used to explain the actually observed Hubble parameter. Indeed, a more correct estimate of the mass of the scalar field needed to comply with actual observations gives an unnaturally small value. On the other hand, for a massless scalar field the potential would have no minimum and hence the field would always remain massless. What solves these issues are the radiative corrections that modify the field's effective potential. These corrections raise the field's effective mass, rendering the model free from fine-tuning, immune against positive fifth-force tests, and better suited to tackle the dark matter sector. © 2015 Published by the American Physical Society.


Wolf K.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Wolf K.L.,George Mason University | Wolf K.L.,Champlain College | Noe G.B.,U.S. Geological Survey | Ahn C.,George Mason University
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2013

Greater connectivity to stream surface water may result in greater inputs of allochthonous nutrients that could stimulate internal nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in natural, restored, and created riparian wetlands. This study investigated the effects of hydrologic connectivity to stream water on soil nutrient fluxes in plots (n = 20) located among four created and two natural freshwater wetlands of varying hydrology in the Piedmont physiographic province of Virginia. Surface water was slightly deeper; hydrologic inputs of sediment, sediment-N, and ammonium were greater; and soil net ammonification, N mineralization, and N turnover were greater in plots with stream water classified as their primary water source compared with plots with precipitation or groundwater as their primary water source. Soil water-filled pore space, inputs of nitrate, and soil net nitrification, P mineralization, and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) were similar among plots. Soil ammonification, N mineralization, and N turnover rates increased with the loading rate of ammonium to the soil surface. Phosphorus mineralization and ammonification also increased with sedimentation and sediment-N loading rate. Nitrification flux and DEA were positively associated in these wetlands. In conclusion, hydrologic connectivity to stream water increased allochthonous inputs that stimulated soil N and P cycling and that likely led to greater retention of sediment and nutrients in created and natural wetlands. Our findings suggest that wetland creation and restoration projects should be designed to allow connectivity with stream water if the goal is to optimize the function of water quality improvement in a watershed. ©American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

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