Pakxé, Laos
Pakxé, Laos

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Natuhara Y.,Nagoya University | Imanishi A.,Kyoto University | Kanzaki M.,Kyoto University | Southavong S.,Champasack University | Duangvongsa I.,Champasack University
Landscape and Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

The species and uses of trees located in paddy fields were investigated in three villages in Champasak Province, Lao PDR. The villages were different in their distance from Pakse City, the capital of the province, and age since foundation. A total of 71 species were recorded, and most were used by local people. The most frequent use was for fruit, firewood, and medicine, though most trees also offered shade for cattle and people. Species composition differed among villages. The youngest paddy supported more trees, remnants of the original forest, for timber. Older paddies supported fewer trees for timber but more for fruit and firewood. The introduced species increased according to the age of the paddy. Products other than timber obtained from the trees were common among villages. The significance of trees in rice cultivation in Laos was compared with that in the Satoyama landscape of Japan. © 2011 International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer.


Vivasane S.,Champasack University | Southavong S.,Champasack University | Vyraphet P.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The experiment was conducted at the Integrated Farming Demonstration Centre, Champasack University, Lao PDR to investigate the effect of biochar and biodigester effluent on biomass yield of taro and on soil physical properties. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) as a 3*2 factorial with 4 replications. The factors were application of biochar to soil at 30 tonnes/ha or none and three levels of biodigester effluent at 0, 50 or 100 kg N/ha. Twenty four plots were prepared with a total area of 235.2 m2. Each plot had an area of 9.8 m2 (2.8*3.5m). Taro was established from seedling with an average of about 1 month old. Plant spacing was 70 cm between rows and between plants in the row. Application of biochar increased biomassyield of taro by 46, 42 and 84% at each of three successive harvests, the first after 84 days growth and the 2nd and 3rd at subsequent intervals of 28 days. There were linear responses in yield to biodigester effluent up to 100 kg N/ha, the increases when biochar was applied being 19, 75 and 84% at succeeding harvests. Responses in the absence of biochar were 33, 67 and 36% at successive harvests. Predicted annual yields per ha with biochar and 100 kg N effluent were 22.8 tonnes of DM and 2.9 tonnes of crude protein. The water holding capacity of the soil was increased by application of biochar but there were no differences due to the level of biodigester effluent. Soil pHwas increased by application of biochar and level of effluent.


Southavong S.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | van Man N.,Nong Lam University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The experiment was conducted at the Integrated Farming Demonstration Centre, Champasack University, Lao PDR to investigate the effect of biochar and biodigester effluent on biomass yield of water spinach and on soil fertility. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) as a 3*2 factorial with 4 replications. The factors were application of biochar to soil at 40 tonnes/ha or none and three levels of biodigester effluent at 0, 50 or 100 kg, N/ha. Twenty four plots were prepared with a total area of 96 m2. Each plot had an area of 4 m2 (1*4m). Spacing between plots was 80cm and between replications was 120cm. Biochar was applied to the soil at 16kg/4m2 or 40 tonnes/ha. Water spinach was established from seed with spacing between rows of 20 cm and between seeds 2-3 cm. The water holding capacity of the soil was increased by application of biochar but there were no differences due to the level of biodigester effluent. Soil pHwas increased by application of biochar from 4.68 to 6.22. There was no apparent effect of level of effluent on soil pH. The biomass yield of water spinach in both first and second harvests was increased due to the application of biochar.


Southavong S.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | van Man N.,Nong Lam University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The hypothesis that was tested in the present study was that there would be a synergistic response in growth of water spinach when biodigester effluent with staggered application was combined with biochar derived from rice husk in an updraft TLUD stove. The experiment was carried out at the research centre of Champasack University, Lao PDR to measure changes in soil fertility as a function of the growth of water spinach plants over a 28 day period following seeding. A completely randomized design was used with 3 replications offifteen treatments in a 3*5 factorial arrangement. The factors were: soil amender (biochar or charcoal or none) at 40 tonnes/ha and level of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 kg N/ha). The treatments were applied to samples of soil held in fifteen litre capacity plastic baskets. Effluent was applied at 7 day intervals (total 4 times) and the application was staggered with 10, 20, 30 and 40% respectively at each successive application. Green biomass yield of the water spinach was increased by biochar but not by charcoal. Theapplication of biodigester effluent increased linearly the green biomass yield of the water spinach. Soil pH and water-holding capacity was increased by biochar but was not affected by level of effluent.


Southavong S.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | van Man N.,Nong Lam University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

A biotest was carried out at the research centre of Champasack University, Lao PDR to determine the effect of biochar, charcoal and biodigester effluent on growth of water spinach. The fifteen treatments in a completely randomized 3*5 factorial arrangement with 3 replications were: soil amender (biochar or charcoal or none) at 40 tonnes/ha and level of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 kg N/ha) applied to samples of soil held in fifteen litre capacity plastic baskets. Sixty seeds of water spinach were planted in each basket. After germination, some seedlings were removed to balance the number in each basket (40 seedlings) for the rest of the experiment. The plants were irrigated every morning and evening. Measurements were made of height, number of leaves, and weight of above-ground biomass after 28 days and again (re-growth) after a further 28 days. Both soil amenders (biochar and charcoal) gave similar improvements in water holding capacity, from 27.4% to 39.0 and 37.6, respectively. Soil pH was increased from 4.7 to 6.6 due to addition of biochar and to 6.3 with charcoal. Biochar increased foliage yield of the water spinach in both the first and second harvests, but there was no apparent effect on foliage growth from application of charcoal. In the first harvest, there were curvilinear responses to biodigester effluent for biochar and charcoal amenders, with the peak occurring at between 50 and 75 kg N/ha. For the un-amended soil the response was linear with the highest yield at 100 kg N/ha. In the second harvest, the response to effluent for the biochar amender was again curvilinear with the peak at 50-75 kg N/ha; by contrast the response to effluent with the charcoal amender was linear with maximum yield requiring 100 kg N/ha. On the un-amended soil there was no relationship between effluent level and biomass yield.


Southavong S.,Champasack University | Khammingsavath K.,Champasack University | Vyraphet P.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

A bio-test experiment was conducted at the Integrated Farming Demonstration Centre, Champasack University, Lao PDR to investigate the effect of effluent-treated biochar on growth of maize and on soil fertility. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) as a 2*5 factorial with 4 replications. The factors were: (i) suspension of the biochar in the effluent for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours; and (ii) application of biodigester effluent (with or without) at 50 kg N/ha. With fertilization of biodigester effluent, the biomass of aerial part (leaf + stem) and root weight of maize were increased due to application of treated biochar with maximum values for the treatment time of 72h. Suspension of the biochar in effluent had no effect on biomass yield in the absence of fertilization with effluent. The treatments had no apparent effect on root length of maize. The effluent treated biochar had no effect on soil pH.


Taysayavong L.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,UTA TOSOLY Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Sixteen growing female pigs (8 Moo Laat and 8 Mong Cai) with an initial weight of 11 to 13 and 25 to 26 kg, respectively, were allocated to a 2*2 factorial arrangement with four replications of four treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The factors were: breed of pigs and supplementation with or without rice distillers' by-product. The basal diet was a mixture of rice bran and fresh water spinach. The diets were offered in amounts based on an expected DM intake of 4% of live weight. For the control diets (no distillers' byproduct) the water spinach comprised 30% of the diet DM. For the diets with rice distillers' by-product the proportions (% DM) were 70, 20 and 10 for rice bran, water spinach and rice distillers' byproduct, respectively. Mong Cai pigs grew faster than Moo Laat pigs but the latter tended to have better feed conversion. There was an interaction between breed and rice distillers' supplementation for DM intake per unit LW and live weight gain. Supplementation increased the intake and growth rate in the Mong Cai pigs. During the 6 weeks of the experiment the Moo Laat pigs fed the rice distillers' product grew more slowly than those not fed the supplement. During the final 6 weeks the response of the Moo Laat pigs was reversed with higher gains observed for the pigs fed the supplement. Coefficients of digestibility determined by the insoluble ash method were not affected by supplementation with rice distillers' by-product but appeared to be higher for the Mong Cai compared with the Moo Laat.

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