North Branch, MN, United States
North Branch, MN, United States

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Balasundaram G.,Chameleon Scientific | Storey D.M.,Chameleon Scientific | Webster T.J.,Northeastern University | Webster T.J.,King Abdulaziz University
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) and coat it on titanium (Ti) using molecular plasma deposition (MPD). NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA) were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications. © 2015 Balasundaram et al.

Balasundaram G.,Chameleon Scientific | Shimpi T.M.,Chameleon Scientific | Sanow W.R.,Chameleon Scientific | Storey D.M.,Chameleon Scientific | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2011

A large amount of work is currently being conducted to design, fabricate, and characterize materials coated or immobilized with bioactive molecules for tissue engineering applications. Here, a novel method, molecular plasma deposition (MPD), is introduced with can efficiently coat materials with numerous bioactive peptides. Specifically, here, RGDS (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine), KRSR (lysine-arginine-serine-arginine), and IKVAV (isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine) were coated on anodized nanotubular titanium using MPD. The anodized nanotubular titanium surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and water contact angle measurements. Peptide coatings were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and an amine reactive fluorescence molecule, 3-(4 carboxybenzoyl)quinoline 2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA). Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to confirm peptide integrity. Osteoblast (bone-forming cell) density was determined on the materials of interest. Results confirmed peptide coatings and showed that the MPD RGDS and KRSR coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium increased osteoblast density compared with uncoated substrates and those coated with IKVAV and a control peptide (RGES) after 4 h and 7 days. SEM confirmed differences in the morphology of the attached cells. These results, to the best of our knowledge, are the first reports using MPD to efficiently create peptide coatings to increase osteoblast density on metals commonly used in orthopedics. Since MPD represents a quick, inexpensive, and versatile technique to coat implants with peptides, it should be further studied for numerous implant applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pareta R.A.,Brown University | Reising A.B.,Purdue University | Miller T.,Chameleon Scientific | Storey D.,Chameleon Scientific | Webster T.J.,Brown University
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2010

The development of new materials through novel surface modification techniques to enhance orthopedic implant lifetimes (hence, decreasing the need for revision surgery) is of great interest to the medical community. The purpose of this in vitro study was to treat common metallic implant materials [such as titanium (Ti) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V)] and traditional polymeric materials (like polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, polytetrafluoroethylene, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and nylon) with either nanoparticulate alumina or titanium using novel (i) ionic plasma deposition (IPD) and (ii) nitrogen ion immersion plasma deposition (NIIPD) techniques. The treated surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and surface energy, demonstrating greater nanoscale roughness on the modified surfaces regardless of the underlying material or coating applied. These surface-modified substrates were also tested for cytocompatibility properties with osteoblasts (or boneforming cells). Results showed increased osteoblast adhesion on modified compared to control (traditional or untreated) materials. Since the adhesion of osteoblasts is the first crucial step for new bone synthesis, these results are very promising and suggest that the plasma deposition processes used in this study should be further investigated to improve the longevity of orthopedic implants. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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