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Martel G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Depoudent C.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | Roguet C.,Institute du Porc | Gallot S.,ITAVI | Pineau C.,Chambre dAgriculture de la Sarthe
Productions Animales

Pig and poultry productions are often perceived as "industrial" since animals are kept indoors and the production rhythms are regular. This perception leads to the image of a work organization and duration that follows a similar schedule being consistent between farms. However, studies on the labor in those productions show a wide range of expectations, strategies, durations and work efficiency in relation with structural changes of the sector. In pig production, farm size increases, the use of hired labor also, and small farms disappear, in particular those with sows. In poultry production, the size increase is moderate, the alternative productions are common and farms are less specialized. Those evolutions are compared to European pig production. From an economical point of view all the strategies can be effective, the one reducing the charges, the other maximizing output per worker. At the farm scale, the stu-dies show a large variability of working time between farms in the two type of productions, which is mainly due to facilities and equipment, mechanization, the kind of species bred, batch number but also the role given by the farmer to the unit. Inter- and intraweek work organizations in pig production differ with the batch farrowing system and breeding practices. Finally, job content is changing: development of managerial skills, reduction of exhaustive tasks replaced by supervising tasks, data management and traceability monitoring. To conclude we illustrate the effect of a change in the production system on content, duration, organization and tiredness of the farmer's work. Source

Hostiou N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hostiou N.,Agro ParisTech | Hostiou N.,VetAgro Sup | Hostiou N.,IRSTEA | And 5 more authors.
Productions Animales

After a period of stable and high milk prices and milk volume production, facilitated by the strong CAP, the French dairy sector now faces a difficult period. Global food demand is increasing and the pending EU milk quota abolition should create a positive environment and stimulate European milk production. These deregulations are also contributing to increased tension around agriculture products on the world market, reinforcing the concerns regarding the future of French milk production potential. Dairy cow breeders are concerned with the evolution of dairy systems and the current interest in diverse technical options. Low input dairy systems reduce their sensitivity to market fluctuations due to a strong link between local agronomic potential and animal demand. Reductions in the cost of production should result in increased income in those systems due to system durability. Such systems stimulate innovation through revival and adaptation of traditional technical practices. This process, already applied by some farmers, requires structural strengths to realize a long grazing season, to limit climatic stress impact through awareness and early adaptation of management, and to promote legume use and the efficient recycling of nutrients. Herd management, especially the calving pattern, and the type of cow are also necessary. If the economic and social performances of these systems are in accordance with expectations, they require knowledge and conviction due to the paradigm shift in the performance evaluation criteria of milk production systems. Source

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