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Sully-sur-Loire, France

Martel G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Depoudent C.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | Roguet C.,Institute du Porc | Gallot S.,ITAVI | Pineau C.,Chambre dAgriculture de la Sarthe
Productions Animales | Year: 2012

Pig and poultry productions are often perceived as "industrial" since animals are kept indoors and the production rhythms are regular. This perception leads to the image of a work organization and duration that follows a similar schedule being consistent between farms. However, studies on the labor in those productions show a wide range of expectations, strategies, durations and work efficiency in relation with structural changes of the sector. In pig production, farm size increases, the use of hired labor also, and small farms disappear, in particular those with sows. In poultry production, the size increase is moderate, the alternative productions are common and farms are less specialized. Those evolutions are compared to European pig production. From an economical point of view all the strategies can be effective, the one reducing the charges, the other maximizing output per worker. At the farm scale, the stu-dies show a large variability of working time between farms in the two type of productions, which is mainly due to facilities and equipment, mechanization, the kind of species bred, batch number but also the role given by the farmer to the unit. Inter- and intraweek work organizations in pig production differ with the batch farrowing system and breeding practices. Finally, job content is changing: development of managerial skills, reduction of exhaustive tasks replaced by supervising tasks, data management and traceability monitoring. To conclude we illustrate the effect of a change in the production system on content, duration, organization and tiredness of the farmer's work. Source


Merot P.,Agrocampus Ouest | Corgne S.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | Delahaye D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Desnos P.,TRAME | And 6 more authors.
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2014

We describe the methods and the main results obtained in the framework of the climaster project with the aim of contributing to the debate on climate change in the Grand Ouest (western part) of France. Concerning the climate, past long term series make it possible to analyse current climate change. One degree of temperature is the mean increase over a fifty-year period. The rainfall data show a seasonally contrasted trend, with an increase in winter and a decrease in summer, especially in the northern part of the Grand Ouest. Concerning agriculture: An original work has been carried out on the agronomic useful days. The current and past trends of land use and land cover concerning innovative remote sensing methods over a decade are discussed. The ability of agricultural stakeholders to take into account the impact of climate change has been approached by surveys, seminars of prospective studies and exchanges among farmer groups. Investigations concerning water stakeholders have been also made for comparison. In conclusion, the work done, the methods used and the body of knowledge built all contribute to a way of considering climate change in the Grand Ouest. Source


Quesnel H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Quesnel H.,Agrocampus Ouest | Quiniou N.,IFIP Institute du Porc | Roy H.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Preweaning piglet mortality is largely attributed to the incidence of low birth weight and birth weight variation within the litter. Therefore, developing strategies to increase within-litter uniformity of pig- let birth weight is important. This study investigated the effects of different feeding strategies based on specific nutrient supplies in sow diet on the within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0). Four batches of highly prolific crossbred Landrace × Large White sows were used. Three dietary treatments were compared: supplies of dextrose during the week before insemination (190 g/d) and of L-arginine (25.5 g/d) from d 77 of pregnancy until term (DEXA, n = 26); a dietary supplementation of L-arginine only (25.5 g/d), from d 77 of pregnancy until term (ARGI, n = 24); and no supplementation to a standard gestation diet (CTL; n = 23). Total born piglets (TB), i.e., piglets born alive (BA) and stillborn piglets, were numbered and weighed at birth and at weaning. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure in a model that included dietary treatment (ARGI, DEXA, and CTL), initial parity (1, 2 and 3, 4, and more), and backfat thickness (below or above the average value at the onset of the experiment: 15.7 mm) as the main effects and batch as random effect. The treatment did not influence (P> 0.10) the number of piglets at birth (on average 15.6± 3.8 and 14.2 ± 3.6 for TB and BA, respectively) or piglet BW0 (on average 1.48 ± 0.26 and 1.50 ± 0.26 kg for TB and BA, respectively). The coefficient of variation of piglet BW0 (CVBW0) was less in litters from ARGI sows than in litters from CTL sows and intermediate in litters from DEXA sows (for TB: 21.4, 23.4, and 25.7%, P = 0.08; for BA: 20.6, 22.5, and 25.4%, P = 0.03, in the ARGI, DEXA, and CTL groups, respectively). Irrespective of diet, CVBW0 was less (P < 0.01) in litters with 16 TB pig- lets or less than in the largest litters (20.9 vs. 26.5%). Litter growth rate during lactation and litter size at weaning were not influenced (P> 0.10) by dietary treatments. In conclusion, supplementing gestation diet with L-arginine during the last third of pregnancy reduced within-litter variation of piglet birth weight. Combining L-arginine dietary supply with a supplementation of dextrose before insemination provided no additional benefit. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Dumont E.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes | Lagadec S.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | Landrain P.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | Landrain B.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | Andres Y.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2014

An above ground pilot-scale biofilter filled with wood chips was tested to treat ammonia emissions from a piggery located in Brittany (France). A long-term experiment corresponding to the fattening period was carried out during 124days (from October 13th 2012 to February 5th 2013) at a constant Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT=12s). NH3 concentrations at the inlet of the biofilter mainly ranged between 8 and 12mgm-3, which correspond to moderate loading rates (LR from 2.4 to 3.0gm-3h-1). After the acclimation period (one month), the biofilter was able to treat the NH3 pollution satisfactorily (removal efficiencies, RE, of around 80%). This study reveals that NH3 biofiltration induced the production of N2O. The N2O concentrations at the outlet of the biofilter were consistently higher than that measured at the inlet, which ranged between 2 and 3mg/m3 according to the time course of the fattening period. The part of NH3-N converted into N2O-N was estimated as ranging from 10% to 40% while the maximal N2O production was around 1gN2O-Nm-3 packed-bedh-1. Although N2O generation seemed to increase with NH3 removal, no correlation between NH3 and N2O could be found. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Dumont E.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes | Lagadec S.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | Landrain P.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | Landrain B.,Chambre dAgriculture de Bretagne | Andres Y.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014 | Year: 2014

An above ground pilot-scale biofilter filled with wood chips was tested to treat ammonia emissions from a piggery located in Brittany (France). A long-term experiment corresponding to the fattening period was carried out to improve biofilter applications for agriculture. NH3 concentrations at the inlet of the biofilter mainly ranged between 8 and 12 mg m-3, which correspond to moderate Loading Rates (LR from 2.4 to 3.0 g m-3 h-1). After the acclimation period (one month), significant NH3 reductions were achieved at a constant Empty Bed Residence Time EBRT = 12 s (removal efficiencies, RE, of around 80%). However, it was observed that NH3 biofiltration induced the production of N2O. The part of NH3-N converted into N2O-N was estimated as ranging from 10% to 40% while the maximal N2O production was around 1.2 gN2o-N rn-3packed-bed h-1. Although biofiltration was suitable for NH3 treatment of piggery air, there is a need to control accurately the medium moisture content of the biofilter in order to avoid N2O generation. Copyright © (2014) by the American Society of Agricultural & Biological Engineers All rights reserved. Source

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