Challenger Institute of Technology

Fremantle, Australia

Challenger Institute of Technology

Fremantle, Australia
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Gardner M.J.,Murdoch University | Cottingham A.,Murdoch University | Hesp S.A.,Murdoch University | Chaplin J.A.,Murdoch University | And 3 more authors.
Reviews in Fisheries Science | Year: 2013

Acanthopagrus butcheri was restocked in an estuary in which it had become depleted. The restocked fish were cultured in 2001 and 2002 using broodstock from that estuary. These fish, whose otoliths had been stained with alizarin complexone, were released into the estuary and their biological performance tracked for seven to eight years. The 2002 cohort, introduced at circa four months old in autumn, survived far better than the 2001 cohort, introduced at circa seven months old in winter, when freshwater discharge peaks and temperatures are low. While restocked fish matured and grew nearly as fast as wild fish, the increase in density was accompanied by a reduced growth of wild fish. Genetic comparisons, using seven microsatellite loci, demonstrated that the expected heterozygosity and relatedness of restocked and wild A. butcheri, which is naturally characterized by low levels of genetic polymorphism, were similar. Although culturing did not demonstrably increase the level of inbreeding, it did result in the loss of some rare alleles. The biological and genetic results, together with the contribution of restocked A. butcheri to the commercial catch for this species in the estuary rising to 62-74% by 2007-2010, demonstrates the efficacy of using restocking to replenish depleted A. butcheri stocks. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Loneragan N.R.,Murdoch University | Jenkins G.I.,Murdoch University | Jenkins G.I.,Challenger Institute of Technology | Taylor M.D.,Murdoch University | And 2 more authors.
Reviews in Fisheries Science | Year: 2013

This article synthesizes information on marine and estuarine release programs in Australia and evaluates potential opportunities for stock enhancement. In Australia, the scale of restocking and stock enhancement programs in marine environments has been low compared with other countries, particularly Japan, China, and the United States. However, since the early 1990s, a number of government and industry organizations have made significant investments in research and development for the release of a variety of species to evaluate the potential of releases to increase the productivity of fisheries. The scale of these research programs has varied from releases of tens of thousands of individuals (abalone Haliotis laevigata, barramundi Lates calcarifer, and mulloway Argyrosomos japonicus), hundreds of thousands (tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus and black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri), and millions (eastern king prawn Penaeus plebejus). These programs, which have shown a strong commitment to the responsible approach to enhancement sensu (Blankenship and Leber, 1995; Lorenzen et al., 2010), have resulted in increased knowledge on the population dynamics and ecology of released species and the development of bio-economic and energetic models to better plan and evaluate releases. Currently, research is continuing in New South Wales (A. japonicus, P. plebejus), Queensland (L. calcarifer), and Western Australia (A. butcheri, H. laevigata). Furthermore, Victoria is developing a plan for releasing juveniles to enhance fisheries in estuarine and marine environments, and South Australia has developed a policy for marine and estuarine stock enhancement. Policies on stock enhancement are being considered for development in New South Wales and Western Australia. These developments in policy and the introduction of fishing license fees in some states have generated renewed interest in initiating release programs in Australia that follow the responsible approach to enhancement. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Partridge G.J.,Challenger Institute of Technology | Partridge G.J.,Murdoch University | Michael R.J.,Challenger Institute of Technology
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2010

The direct and indirect effects of a simulated, calcarenite-based dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus were assessed. Direct effects were assessed by measuring hatch rate or survival of eggs and pre-feeding larvae, respectively, over a range of concentrations and exposure durations. Exposure of eggs to suspended solid concentrations up to 10 000 mg l-1 for 24 h did not affect egg buoyancy or hatch rate, despite sediment adherence occurring at the two highest concentrations tested. Newly hatched larvae, whose mouths were still closed, were relatively tolerant of suspended solids, with a 12 h lethal concentration resulting in 50% mortality, LC50, of 2020 mg l-1 and a first observable effect concentration of 150 mg l-1. Once the larvae's mouths opened, tolerance was significantly reduced, with a 12 h LC50 of 157 mg l-1 and a first observable effect concentration of 4 mg l-1. Tolerance of larvae to suspended solids was negatively correlated with suspended solids concentration and exposure time, with exposure durations of ≤6 h being significantly less detrimental than those of 9 h or more. Indirect effects to larvae were assessed by measuring ingestion of copepod nauplii by 10 and 15 days post-hatch (dph) larvae at sediment concentrations from 0 to 200 mg l-1 in 50 mg l-1 increments over 4 h. Ingestion was not significantly affected by sediment for 10 dph larvae, but by 15 dph, sediment had a far greater impact on ingestion, with larvae in all sediment treatments eating significantly fewer copepods than those in the control. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Partridge G.J.,Challenger Institute of Technology | Partridge G.J.,Murdoch University | Michael R.J.,Challenger Institute of Technology | Thuillier L.,Challenger Institute of Technology
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2014

The bitterness of racemic praziquantel (PZQ) currently constrains its use as an infeed treatment against monogenean flukes in finfish aquaculture. In an effort to increase the palatability of diets containing racemic PZQ for yellowtail kingfish, the palatability and efficacy of 2 forms of racemic PZQ (powder or powder within microcapsules) against natural infestations of skin and gill flukes were compared using 2 different dietary application methods (incorporated within the pellet mash prior to extrusion or surface-coated after extrusion) at active dietary inclusion levels of 8, 16 and 25 g kg-1 in large (3.5-4 kg) yellowtail kingfish. There was no clear benefit of incorporating PZQ into diets prior to extrusion. PZQ microcapsules improved the palatability of PZQ-containing diets but did not completely mask the bitter flavour. At the lowest active dietary inclusion level of 8 g kg-1, ingestion of the diet containing PZQ microcapsules was equal to the control and significantly better than that containing PZQ powder. At an inclusion level of 16 g kg-1, ingestion of the PZQ microcapsule diet was significantly better than that containing the same inclusion of PZQ powder but significantly lower than the control. Consumption of the diet containing 25 g kg-1 of PZQ microcapsules was poor. All fish consuming medicated feeds had a significant reduction in flukes relative to control fish; however, efficacy data and blood serum analysis suggested that diets containing PZQ microcapsules had lower bioavailability than those containing PZQ powder. © Inter-Research 2014.

Lymbery A.J.,Murdoch University | Kay G.D.,Murdoch University | Doupe R.G.,Murdoch University | Partridge G.J.,Murdoch University | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Dryland salinity is a major problem affecting food production from agricultural land in Australia and throughout the world. Although there is much interest in using saline groundwater to grow marine fish on salt-affected farmland, the disposal of nutrient enriched, saline aquaculture effluent is a major environmental problem. We investigated the potential of the salt-tolerant NyPa Forage plant (Distichlis spicata L. Greene var. yensen-4a) to trap nutrients from saline aquaculture effluent and subsequently to provide a fodder crop for livestock. Sub-surface flow wetlands containing NyPa Forage were constructed and their efficacy in removing total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate was monitored under different levels of nutrients and salinity. The wetlands removed 60-90% of total nitrogen loads and at least 85% of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads, with greater efficiency at high nutrient and low salinity levels. The above-ground yield, sodium, crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) of NyPa Forage plants were measured after fertilisation with different nutrient levels and cropping at different frequencies. Yield of plants increased with increased nutrient, while nutritive value was greater when nutrients were applied but did not differ among nutrient levels. Yield was not affected by cropping frequency, but nutritive value was greatest when plants were cropped at intervals of 21 or 42days. At optimum nutrient addition and cropping levels, the plants had a mean CP content of 16.7% and an in vitro DMD of 67.6%, equivalent to an energy value of 9.5MJkg-1. Assuming an equivalent fibre content and voluntary food intake as grass hay, and no accumulation of other toxic minerals, these nutritive values would be sufficient for maintenance or moderate liveweight gains in dry adult sheep or cattle. © 2012.

Abbink W.,Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies | Blanco Garcia A.,Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies | Roques J.A.C.,Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies | Roques J.A.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

A search for a viable new fish species for culture in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the Netherlands identified yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi as having excellent potential. To assist in determining the most appropriate water quality conditions for this species in RAS, the effect of water temperature (21, 23.5, 25, 26.5 and 29°C) and pH (6.58, 7.16 and 7.85) was tested in two separate experiments. Growth performance, feed conversion, stress-physiological and metabolic parameters were assessed in juvenile yellowtail kingfish grown in pilot-scale RAS. Growth was optimised at a water temperature of 26.5°C, in combination with maximum food intake and optimum food conversion ratio (FCR). Increasing temperature from 21°C to 26.5°C resulted in a 54% increase in the fish's final weight after 30. days. A water pH of 6.58 resulted in mortality and inhibited both growth and FCR due to physiological disruptions to which the fish could not adapt. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Woolley L.D.,Flinders University | Partridge G.J.,Challenger Institute of Technology | Partridge G.J.,Murdoch University | Qin J.G.,Flinders University
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Mortality is a major concern in larval fish rearing during exogenous feeding. An important cause of mortality of larval yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) during the rotifer - Artemia weaning period was hypothesised as being due to larval sinking response after satiated feeding prior to dusk. This paper documents the effect of larval body density change under different Artemia feeding regimes and adds to the understanding of the cause of mortality of yellowtail kingfish larvae. The change in body density was used as a tool to determine the time of last feed in a day to ensure larvae were neutrally buoyant at dusk. An adaptive Artemia feeding regime was implemented, in which the amount of feed applied to the larvae was modified based on the body density. Larvae were denser than the seawater in which they were reared when fully satiated with Artemia. The time required to return to pre-feeding density significantly decreased with larval age. At 12days post hatch (dph), the peak in body density of larvae fed Artemia to satiation was 1.0320gcm -3 and they did not return to a pre-feeding body density (1.0260gcm -3), for approximately 10h. By 19dph, larval body density only increased to 1.0275gcm -3 when larvae were fully satiated and they were neutrally buoyant again by 4h. The decrease in larval body density when fully satiated at 16dph demonstrated that overfeeding larvae with Artemia should be avoided prior to dusk before this age to maintain neutral buoyancy. The use of the adaptive regime reduced mortality by 20% compared with the control, from 13 to 17dph, without sacrificing larval growth. Transition to Artemia feeding is a critical stage for yellowtail kingfish larvae and mortalities can be significantly reduced during this period by managing the timing of Artemia feeds throughout the day. The strategy of an adaptive feeding method may be considered a novel management tool to prevent larval sinking and associated mortality during the period of weaning from rotifers to Artemia during larval rearing. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Le K.T.,Curtin University Australia | Dao T.T.T.,Curtin University Australia | Fotedar R.,Curtin University Australia | Partrigde G.J.,Challenger Institute of Technology
Aquaculture International | Year: 2014

The effects of dietary selenium (Se) and vitamin E and their interaction in the nutrition of yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi, were investigated. Six dietary treatments were prepared in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (not supplemented or supplemented with Se at 1 or 2 mg kg-1 × supplemented with vitamin E at 40 or 180 mg kg-1). A group of fish in triplicate were fed one of the six experimental diets for 6 weeks, and their growth performance, haematological and immune responses were measured. The results revealed positively interactive effects between dietary Se and vitamin E in yellowtail kingfish. Se significantly increased weight gain of fish fed diets low in vitamin E, but not high in vitamin E. Simultaneous supplementation of both micronutrients resulted in significant increase in serum bactericidal activity. There was no significant effect of Se or vitamin E on survival, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, haematocrit, white blood cell counts and fillet proximate composition. However, Se and vitamin E contents in fillets were significantly responsive to dietary Se and vitamin E, respectively. The supplemental level of Se at 2 mg kg-1 significantly increased red blood cell counts and haemoglobin concentrations, while lysozyme activity in skin mucus was significantly stimulated by vitamin E. The findings of Se and vitamin E supplementation in this study can be applied to improve growth and health indices of yellowtail kingfish. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Le K.T.,Curtin University Australia | Fotedar R.,Curtin University Australia | Partridge G.,Challenger Institute of Technology
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2014

Six dietary treatments were prepared in a 3 × 2 factorial design (unsupplemented or supplemented with Se at 1 or 2 mg kg-1 × supplemented with vitamin E at 40 or 180 mg kg-1) and fed to yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) for 6 weeks to evaluate the effects of dietary Se and vitamin E on growth performance, immune and antioxidant responses and to investigate the potential interaction between these two micronutrients in this species. The results have revealed significantly interactive effects with positive physiological responses. Se significantly increased weight gain of fish fed diets low in vitamin E, but not high in vitamin E, whereas serum lysozyme activity was significantly improved by Se in diets high in vitamin E, but not low in vitamin E. Moreover, there was evidence of myopathy in fish deficient in both Se and vitamin E, but not single deficiency. There was no significant effect of dietary Se, vitamin E or their interaction on survival, antibody titre, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fillet proximate composition; however, fillet Se and vitamin E were significantly responsive to dietary Se and vitamin E, respectively, and higher dietary Se intakes produced significantly higher red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Saeed A.,Challenger Institute of Technology | Vuthaluru R.,Curtin University Australia | Vuthaluru H.B.,Curtin University Australia
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2015

Cross-flow membrane operations often experience material build-up on membrane surfaces leading to maintenance issues. Although several studies addressed the flow distributions and concentration patterns during membrane operations, the prediction of fouling propensities of top and bottom membranes are non-existent. Present study investigates the effects of dimensionless filament spacing of feed spacer on flow and concentration patterns on membrane surfaces. Comparisons of spacers in terms of a novel concept 'Spacer Configuration Efficacy', SCE (Sh/Pn) revealed that spacers with higher SCE values would lead to higher mass transport of the solute away from the membrane walls with moderate energy losses. Among the 16 spacer arrangements studied, spacer with filament spacing of 4 was found to be the optimal (Reh up to 200) with moderate pressure drop and higher values of mass transfer coefficient for the two membrane walls, further mass transfer coefficient values for the two membrane surfaces were found to be equal which leads to equal and lower fouling tendencies of the membrane walls. © 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

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