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Wierzbowska J.,Chair of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment Protection | SZuk-Golaszewska K.,University of Warmia and Mazury
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2014

Fenugreek is one of the oldest known medicinal plants that have been used in traditional medicine in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilization and Rhizobium meliloti inoculation on the yield, yield components and seed quality of fenugreek. The experiment was performed during two growing seasons. Chlorophyll content was determined with the use of the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. After harvest, biometric measurements were performed and the chemical composition of vegetative organs and seeds was determined in fenugreek plants. At 43 DAS, the chlorophyll content of control plant leaves was determined as 46 SPAD, and it decreased with plant growth. In treatments fertilized with nitrogen, the chlorophyll content of leaves increased from 48.5 (N0.5) - 56.1 (N1) SPAD (43 DAS) to 58.2 (N0.5) - 60.6 (N1) SPAD (58 DAS).Seed inoculation with Rhizobium meliloti was more highly correlated with seed quality than plant habitus and yield components. Inoculation decreased (by 11.5%) the crude fat content of fenugreek seeds, and increased phosphorus, calcium and sodium concentrations. Nitrogen fertilization significantly influenced morphological parameters and yield components, and it contributed to a significant increase in the total protein content of seeds. © 2014, Polish Society Magnesium Research. All rights reserved.

Skwierawska M.,Chair of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment Protection | Krzebietke S.,Chair of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment Protection | Jankowski K.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Benedycka Z.,Chair of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment Protection | Mackiewicz-Walec E.,Chair of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment Protection
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2014

Over the years, researchers from Polish research centres have been improving analytical methods as well as plant and soil assays, designed to diagnose demands of crops for sulphur fertilization and to assess their supply with this element. In this article, the authors look back at the last 100 years of the Polish research on sulphur, in the context of analytical methods, soil and plant assays, and their application to assessments of crop fertilization requirements. Studies on diagnosing crops' demand for sulphur fertilization have a long-standing tradition. Back in 1903, for example, Godlewski and Jentys wrote about nutritional demands of crops and about sulphur nutrition. For over a century since then, the analytical methods have changes, soil and plant assays have been designed and parameters have been established to facilitate assessment of plant nutrient demands. Sulphur-oxidizing autotrophic microorganisms or the fungi Aspergillus niger have been used for diagnosis. Another investigated possibility was monitoring the capacity of sulphur for migration, assayed in lisymetric experiments. The 1960s were a time when modifications of earlier turbimetric methods appeared. In addition, applications of the isotope 35S were checked as a sulphur marker enabling determination of the dynamics of this element in soil and in plants. With the passing of time, new technologies and measuring devices were developed. Some research centres implemented sulphur detection assays on soil and plant material with the following methods: ICP, GC, HPLC or XPF (x-ray fluorescent analysis). With respect to soil and plant tests, which admittedly are a very useful tool for monitoring the sulphur abundance in soil and nutritional demands of plants, it is now the time to state that they need further verification and calibration, in both pot and field experiments.

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