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Sinha A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Saha A.,Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital | Kumar M.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya | Sharma S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2015

While studies show that prolonged initial prednisone therapy reduces The frequency of relapses in nephrotic syndrome, they lack power and have risk of bias. In order to examine The effect of prolonged therapy on frequency of relapses, we conducted a blinded, 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 5 academic hospitals in India on 181 patients, 1-12 years old, with a first episode of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Following 12 weeks of standard therapy, in random order, 92 patients received tapering prednisolone while 89 received matching-placebo on alternate days for The next 12 weeks. On intention-to-treat analyses, primary outcome of number of relapses at 1 year was 1.26 in The 6-month group and 1.54 in The 3-month group (difference-0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI)-0.75, 0.19). Relative relapse rate for 6-vs. 3-month therapy, adjusted for gender, age, and time to initial remission, was 0.70 (95% CI 0.47-1.10). Similar proportions of patients had sustained remission, frequent relapses, and adverse effects due to steroids. Adjusted hazard ratios for first relapse and frequent relapses with prolonged therapy were 0.57 (95% CI, 0.36-1.07) and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.61-1.67), respectively. Thus, extending initial prednisolone treatment from 3 to 6 months does not influence The course of illness in children with nephrotic syndrome. These findings have implications for guiding The duration of therapy of nephrotic syndrome. © 2015 International Society of Nephrology.


Jain R.,Hindu Rao Hospital | Gupta R.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya | Kudesia M.,Hindu Rao Hospital | Singh S.,Hindu Rao Hospital
CytoJournal | Year: 2013

Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed in pre-operative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions for many years. Various studies in the existing literature have shown a wide range of sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of cytologic diagnosis. This study was aimed at evaluating salivary gland FNAC for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This study included 80 patients who underwent pre-operative FNAC followed by surgical procedure and histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was considered as the gold standard. FNAC diagnosis was compared with the final histologic impression and concordance assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant lesions were calculated. Results: Of the 80 cases, majority (67.5%) involved the parotid gland. Eight cases (10%) were non-neoplastic lesions, comprised of sialadenitis, retention cyst and sialadenosis. Of a total of 72 neoplasms, 58 were benign and 14 were malignant salivary gland tumors. A cyto-histologic concordance of benign diagnosis was achieved in 85.7% of cases and for malignant lesions in 92.8% of the malignant tumors. FNAC showed a sensitivity of 92.8%, specificity of 93.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.2% and negative predictive value of 98.4% for malignant salivary gland tumors. There was one false-negative diagnosis and four false-positive cases diagnosed on FNAC. Conclusion: FNAC continues to be a reliable diagnostic technique in hands of an experienced cytopathologist. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant lesions is high, though the rate of tumor type-specific characterization is lower, due to variable cytomorphology. In difficult cases, histologic examination may be employed for accurate diagnosis. © 2013 Jain, et al.; licensee Cytopathology Foundation Inc.


Agarwal A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) | Year: 2010

To evaluate the characteristics of bicyclespoke injuries in a suburban Indian population. 30 male and 11 female children aged 4 to 12 (mean, 6) years with bicycle-spoke injuries were prospectively studied. Data collected included patient age, gender, position at the time of injury, site, type, and characteristics of the injury. According to the Oestern and Tscherne classification, soft-tissue injuries were classified into grades 0 to 3. 37 patients injured the right foot, and 4 the left foot; 34 by the rear wheel and 7 by the front wheel. All front-wheel injuries involved the forefoot and midfoot. 73% of injuries involved the lateral aspect of the ankle. The most common injury site was the posterior ankle (n = 30), followed by the medial midfoot (n = 7), and the forefoot (n = 3). Partial avulsion of heel flap and an exposed Achilles tendon were each noted in 2 patients. 10, 13, 14, and 4 patients sustained soft-tissue injuries of grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Eight patients had associated fractures. All fractures healed uneventfully. Marginal necrosis of the wound was noted in 5 patients, but none required a skin graft. No patient had functional impairment or residual tenderness of the foot. Bicycle-spoke injuries usually affected the ankle region, and the wound was usually deeper than it appeared on initial examination. Reassessment of the wound after 48 hours is recommended. Severity of soft-tissue injury was the determinant of overall function; bone fractures by themselves did not alter the duration of recovery. To prevent bicyclespoke injuries, spoke guards and foot rests should be used, and children being carried on a bicycle should wear proper shoes. Education on injury mechanism, severity, and preventive measures is also important.


Agarwal A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya | Aggarwal A.N.,UCMS and GTB Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2015

The pathological invasion of a joint and subsequent inflammation is known as septic arthritis. The knee and hip are the most frequently involved joints. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of septic arthritis in children. An acute onset of illness with an inflamed painful joint and restricted movements and inability to use joint (pseudoparalysis) clinically indicates septic arthritis. The diagnosis is difficult in a neonate or young child where refusal to feed, crying, discomfort during change of diaper (if hip is involved) or attempted joint movement may be the only findings. Fever and other systemic signs may also be absent in neonates. Septic arthritis is diagnosed clinically, supported by appropriate radiological and laboratory investigations. The peripheral blood white cell count is frequently raised with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often markedly raised. Ultrasonography and MRI are preferred investigations in pediatric septic arthritis. Determination of infecting organism in septic arthritis is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management. Joint aspirate and/or blood culture should be obtained before starting antibiotic treatment. Several effective antibiotic regimes are available for managing septic arthritis in children. Presence of large collections, thick pus, joint loculations and pus evacuating into surrounding soft tissues are main indications for surgical drainage. Joint aspiration can be a practical alternative in case the lesion is diagnosed early, with uncomplicated presentations and superficial joints. © 2015 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation


Agarwal A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya | Aggarwal A.N.,UCMS and GTB Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) is one of the commonest bone infection in childhood. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest organism causing AHO. With use of advanced diagnostic methods, fastidious Kingella kingae is increasingly becoming an important organism in etiology of osteoarticular infections in children under the age of 3 y. The diagnosis of AHO is primarily clinical. The main clinical symptom and sign in AHO is pain and tenderness over the affected bone especially in the metaphyseal region. However, in a neonate the clinical presentation may be subtle and misleading. Laboratory and radiological investigations supplement the clinical findings. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are frequently elevated. Ultrasonography and MRI are key imaging modalities for early detection of AHO. Determination of infecting organism in AHO is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management and therefore, organism isolation using blood cultures and site aspiration should be attempted. Several effective antibiotics regimes are available for managing AHO in children. The choice of antibiotic and its duration and mode of delivery requires individualization depending upon severity of infection, causative organism, regional sensitivity patterns, time elapsed between onset of symptoms and child’s presentation and the clinical and laboratory response to the treatment. If pus has been evidenced in the soft tissues or bone region, surgical decompression of abscess is mandatory. © 2015 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation


Agarwal A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya | Kumar A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2016

Background: A peculiarity of non-vascularized fibular harvest is that the donor site regenerates new bone provided periosteum is preserved. We prospectively investigated the regenerated fibula quantitatively and studied clinical implications of non-regeneration. Material and methods: The fibula was harvested using a periosteum preserving technique. Only fibulae from healthy legs were harvested. X-rays were done pre- and post-operatively at three and six months. Clinical assessment of donor limb included pain, gait, motor and sensory examination. Fibular regeneration was quantified using defined length and width criteria. Results: There were 16 children with 21 harvested fibula. About 65 % of total fibular length was available for use as graft. There was regeneration of fibula similar to the pre-operative dimensions as early as six months in 71 % of cases. There were no clinical morbid findings as assessed at six months follow up despite non-continuity being observed in 29 % of cases. The predominant site for non-continuity was middle third-distal third junction. Conclusions: Periosteal preserving non-vascularized fibula grafting was a low morbidity procedure. In two-third of the cases, there was regeneration of fibula comparable to pre-operative dimensions as early as six months. The non-continuous regeneration had no clinical implications. © 2016 SICOT aisbl


Singal A.,University of Delhi | Khanna D.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2011

Onychomycosis is a common nail ailment associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Increased prevalence in the recent years is attributed to enhanced longevity, comorbid conditions such as diabetes, avid sports participation, and emergence of HIV. Dermatophytes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents, particularly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, followed by Candida species and non dermatophytic molds (NDMs). Several clinical variants have been recognized. Candida onychomycosis affects fingernails more often and is accompanied by paronychia. NDM molds should be suspected in patients with history of trauma and associated periungual inflammation. Diagnosis is primarily based upon KOH examination, culture and histopathological examinations of nail clippings and nail biopsy. Adequate and appropriate sample collection is vital to pinpoint the exact etiological fungus. Various improvisations have been adopted to improve the fungal isolation. Culture is the gold standard, while histopathology is often performed to diagnose and differentiate onychomycosis from other nail disorders such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Though rarely used, DNA-based methods are effective for identifying mixed infections and quantification of fungal load. Various treatment modalities including topical, systemic and surgical have been used.Topically, drugs (ciclopirox and amorolfine nail lacquers) are delivered through specialized transungual drug delivery systems ensuring high concentration and prolonged contact. Commonly used oral therapeutic agents include terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. Terbinafine and itraconazole are given as continuous as well as intermittent regimes. Continuous terbinafine appears to be the most effective regime for dermatophyte onychomycosis. Despite good therapeutic response to newer modalities, long-term outcome is unsatisfactory due to therapeutic failure, relapse, and reinfection. To combat the poor response, newer strategies such as combination, sequential, and supplementary therapies have been suggested. In the end, treatment of special populations such as diabetic, elderly, and children is outlined.


Pandhi D.,University of Delhi | Khanna D.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2013

Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.


Agarwal A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya | Gupta N.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2014

Purpose: The prediction of number of casts in the Ponseti method has always remained a subject of interest. We investigated the correlation of the number of casts before tenotomy with the age and initial Pirani score in Ponseti treatment of club foot. Methods: Inclusion criteria were idiopathic clubfeet corrected by Ponseti method requiring tenotomy for equinus correction in children up to ten years of age. Defaulters (noncompliance with serial casting schedule), children with postural, non idiopathic, previously surgically treated, recurrent clubfoot and clubfoot not requiring tenotomy were not included in this study. Further, children who did not require tenotomy were also excluded. ANOVA regression analysis was used for finding correlation between initial Pirani score, age in months and number of corrective casts prior to tenotomy. Results: There were a total of 297 children (442 feet) in the study. The average age of the child at presentation was 10.3 months and the average initial Pirani score was 4.8. The average number of corrective casts was seven per child (range, two to18). The regression analysis showed both Pirani and age had positive correlation with number of casts, although weak (r2 = 0.05-0.20). The initial Pirani scoring correlated ten times more than age (in months) to the number of casts. Conclusion: The number of casts for correction in idiopathic clubfoot, although variable, is influenced by both initial Pirani score and age. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Mohta A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Primary care physicians are often required to initially manage the children with surgical emergencies. Many neonates with congenital malformations delivered without supervision may also be managed initially by the family physicians. The role of the primary care physician in such cases should be to diagnose the condition correctly, provide immediate care and then refer the newborn or child to higher centre for appropriate management. © 2013 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.

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