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Seoul, South Korea

Kim S.Y.,Dong - A University | Son W.S.,Korea University | Park M.C.,Seoul National University | Kim C.M.,Dong - A University | And 5 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2013

ARS-Interacting Multi-functional Protein 1 (AIMP1) is a cytokine that is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, immune activation, and fibroblast proliferation. In this study, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was isolated as a binding partner of AIMP peptide (amino acids 6-46) in affinity purification using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). AIMP1 peptide induced the proliferation of adult BMMSCs by activating Akt, inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and thereby increasing the level of β-catenin. In addition, AIMP1 peptide induced the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus and increased the transcription of c-myc and cyclin D1 by activating the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex. By contrast, transfection of dominant negative TCF abolished the effect of AIMP1. The inhibition of Akt, using LY294002, abolished the accumulation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin induced by AIMP1, leading to a decrease in c-myc and cyclin D1 expression, which decreased the proliferation of BMMSCs. An intraperitoneal injection of AIMP1 peptide into C57/BL6 mice increased the colony formation of fibroblast-like cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis showed that the colony-forming cells were CD29+/CD44 +/CD90+/CD105+/CD34-/CD45 -, which is characteristic of MSCs. In addition, the fibroblast-like cells differentiated into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that AIMP1 peptide promotes the proliferation of BMMSCs by activating the β-catenin/TCF complex via FGFR2-mediated activation of Akt, which leads to an increase in MSCs in peripheral blood. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Song S.-Y.,CHA Medical University | Chung H.-M.,CHA Stem Cell Institute | Chung H.-M.,CHA Medical University | Chung H.-M.,CHA Bio and Diostech Co. | And 3 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Several lines of evidence suggest that VEGF is a key regulator of the paracrine effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), but the mechanism of action remains to be identified. Areas covered in this review: This brief review discusses the following research questions: i) Does VEGF increase the proliferation/migration and differentiation of ASCs?; ii) Does VEGF mediate the paracrine effects of ASCs?; and iii) How is VEGF synthesized, and which factors regulate VEGF secretion? What the reader will gain: External stimuli such as hypoxia may activate receptor tyrosine kinases in the membrane of ASCs, which, in turn, phosphorylate extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and members of the Akt signaling pathway, stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) that are primary regulators of VEGF expression. Secreted VEGF directly stimulates ASCs via VEGF receptors in an autocrine manner and regenerates damaged neighboring cells in a paracrine manner. Take home message: Most studies of stem cell regeneration have focused on differentiation of ASCs and their building block function; however, the paracrine effects of ASCs should also be the focus of attention. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Kim J.H.,CHA Medical University | Kim J.H.,CHA Stem Cell Institute | Song S.-Y.,CHA Medical University | Park S.G.,CHA Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2012

We have previously demonstrated that hypoxia stimulates adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise mechanism involved in the ROS generation by ASCs is not well understood. We sought to investigate in this work: (1) which subtype of NADPH oxidase (Nox) is primarily expressed in ASCs; (2) where Nox4 is localized in ASCs; and (3) whether silencing of Nox4 attenuates hypoxia-enhanced function of ASC. We used 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) as an indicator of ROS generation and found that the fluorescence intensity of DCF-DA was significantly increased after hypoxia exposure (2% oxygen). In addition, hypoxia enhanced the proliferation and migration of ASCs and upregulated the mRNA expression of Oct4 and Rex1. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression of Nox family in ASCs demonstrated that Nox4 is primarily expressed in ASCs, while immunofluorescence assay showed that Nox4 is mainly localized in the perinuclear region and overlaps with Mitotracker, a mitochondria marker. Silencing of Nox4 by siRNA treatment downregulated the RNA and protein expression of Nox4, which significantly reduced the ROS generation under hypoxia. In addition, Nox4 silencing significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of ASCs and downregulated the mRNA expression of Oct4 and Rex1. Phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, AKT, and ERK1/2 also diminished following Nox4 silencing. In a nutshell, these results suggest that Nox4 is primarily expressed in ASCs and plays a pivotal role in the hypoxia-enhanced stimulation of ASCs. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Kim J.H.,CHA Medical University | Kim J.H.,CHA Stem Cell Institute | Park S.G.,CHA Medical University | Song S.-Y.,CHA Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

Hypoxia enhances the proliferation and migration of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, this study primarily investigated whether or not ROS generation could regulate microRNA-210 (miR-210) expression, and increase proliferation/migration of ASCs. In addition, we tried to identify the signaling pathways involved in miR-210 upregulation and the direct target genes of miR-210 that mediate these functions. Various sources of ROS generation such as hypoxia, antimycin, rotenone, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB upregulated miR-210 expression, and increased the proliferation/migration of ASCs. There is a positive feed-forward loop between ROS generation and miR-210, and miR-210 itself increases ROS generation by downregulation of iron-sulfur cluster scaffold homolog 2 (ISCU2). Although hypoxiainducible factor-αa was not involved in miR-210 expression, pharmacological or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-driven inhibition of Akt and ERK1/2 molecules reduced miR-210 expression. Transfection of siRNAs of NF-κB and Elk1 also reduced miR-210 expression, indicating that these signaling pathways mediate miR-210 upregulation. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) was selected for miR-210 target gene, and it was downregulated by ROS generators or miR-210 mimic treatment. PTPN2 was first proven to be a direct miR-210 target in luciferase activity assay, and pharmacological inhibition or overexpression of PTPN2 regulated the proliferation and migration of ASC. In conclusion, ROS generation from diverse sources induces miR-210 expression in ASCs via PDGFR-β, Akt and ERK pathways. Transcription of miR-210 expression is regulated by NF-κB and Elk1, and miR-210 increases the proliferation and migration of ASCs via ISCU2 and PTPN2 downregulation. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Kim J.H.,CHA Medical University | Kim J.H.,CHA Stem Cell Institute | Kim J.H.,CHA Bio and Diostech Co. | Park S.-H.,CHA Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2011

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) offer a potential alternative for tissue repair and regeneration. We have recently shown that hypoxia stimulates ASCs and enhances the regenerative potential of ASCs, which is beneficial for ASC therapy. In the present study, we further investigated a key mediator and a signal pathway involved in the stimulation of ASC during hypoxia. Culturing ASC in a hypoxic incubator (2% oxygen tension) increased the proliferation and migration, and this was mediated by Akt and ERK pathways. To determine the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), 2′,7′- dichlorofluorescin diacetate intensity was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Hypoxia significantly increased the dichlorofluorescin diacetate intensity, which was greatly reduced by N-acetyl-cysteine and diphenyleneiodonium treatment. Likewise, the hypoxia-induced proliferation and migration of ASCs were reversed by N-acetyl-cysteine and diphenyleneiodonium treatment, suggesting the involvement of ROS generation in ASC stimulation. Further, we examined the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and observed that hypoxia stimulated the phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β. In summary, the ROS produced by ASCs in response to hypoxia was mostly likely due to NADPH oxidase activity. The increased cellular ROS was accompanied by the phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β as well as by the activation of ERK and Akt signal pathways. Our results suggest a pivotal role for ROS generation in the stimulation of ASCs by hypoxia. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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