Roubaix, France
Roubaix, France

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Jaillette E.,Lille University Hospital Center | Girault C.,University of Rouen | Brunin G.,CH Dr Duchenne | Zerimech F.,Lille University Hospital Center | And 16 more authors.
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2017

Purpose: Studies on the impact of tapered-cuff tracheal tubes on rates of microaspiration and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intubated patients have reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of this shape of tracheal cuff on abundant microaspiration of gastric contents in critically ill patients. Methods: All patients intubated in the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h were eligible for this multicenter cluster-randomized controlled cross-over open-label study. The primary outcome was abundant microaspiration of gastric contents, defined by the presence of pepsin at significant level in >30% of tracheal aspirates. Quantitative measurement of pepsin and salivary amylase was performed in all tracheal aspirates during the 48 h following enrollment. Results: A total of 326 patients were enrolled in the ten participating ICUs (162 in the PVC tapered-cuff group and 164 in the standard-cuff group). Patient characteristics were similar in the two study groups. The proportion of patients with abundant microaspiration of gastric contents was 53.5% in the tapered-cuff and 51.0% in the standard-cuff group (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 0.72–1.82). While abundant microaspiration of oropharyngeal secretions was not significantly different (77.4 vs 68.6%, p = 0.095), the proportion of patients with tracheobronchial colonization was significantly lower (29.6 vs 43.3%, p = 0.01) in the tapered-cuff than in the standard-cuff group. No significant difference between the two groups was found for other secondary outcomes, including ventilator-associated events and VAP. Conclusions: This trial showed no significant impact of tapered-cuff tracheal tubes on abundant microaspiration of gastric contents. Trial registration:, number NCT01948635. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM

Deram A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Genin M.,University of Lille Nord de France | Noel C.,Service de Nephrologie | Cuny D.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 85 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the populations sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.Methods: The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR) and credible intervals (CI) were estimated for each quintile.Results: Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and ageadjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5).Conclusion: For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients financial ability to gain access to healthcare. © 2014 Occelli et al.

Legriel S.,CH Versailles Site Andre Mignot | Schraub O.,CH Versailles Site Andre Mignot | Azoulay E.,CHU Saint Louis | Hantson P.,Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc | And 28 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objective: Few outcome data are available about posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We studied 90-day functional outcomes and their determinants in patients with severe PRES. Design: 70 patients with severe PRES admitted to 24 ICUs in 2001-2010 were included in a retrospective cohort study. The main outcome measure was a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) of 5 (good recovery) on day 90. Main Results: Consciousness impairment was the most common clinical sign, occurring in 66 (94%) patients. Clinical seizures occurred in 57 (81%) patients. Median mean arterial pressure was 122 (105-143) mmHg on scene. Cerebral imaging abnormalities were bilateral (93%) and predominated in the parietal (93%) and occipital (86%) white matter. Median number of brain areas involved was 4 (3-5). Imaging abnormalities resolved in 43 (88%) patients. Ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic complications occurred in 7 (14%) patients. The most common causes were drug toxicity (44%) and hypertensive encephalopathy (41%). On day 90, 11 (16%) patients had died, 26 (37%) had marked functional impairments (GOS, 2 to 4), and 33 (56%) had a good recovery (GOS, 5). Factors independently associated with GOS<5 were highest glycaemia on day 1 (OR, 1.22; 95%CI, 1.02-1.45, p = 0.03) and time to causative-factor control (OR, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.04-10.46, p = 0.04), whereas GOS = 5 was associated with toxaemia of pregnancy (preeclampsia/eclampsia) (OR, 0.06; 95%CI, 0.01-0.38, p = 0.003). Conclusions: By day 90 after admission for severe PRES, 44% of survivors had severe functional impairments. Highest glycaemia on day 1 and time to causative-factor control were strong early predictors of outcomes, suggesting areas for improvement. © 2012 Legriel et al.

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