Muzaffarnagar, India
Muzaffarnagar, India

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Singh V.P.,Ch Chhotu Ram Pg College | Prakash J.,Ch Chhotu Ram Pg College | Prakash J.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh R.K.,Ch Chhotu Ram Pg College | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2012

A field experiment on effect of spacing and bio fertilizers on growth and nutrients of stevia (Stevia rebuadiana Bertoni.) was conducted during kharif seasons of 2006 and 2007. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot with four spacing levels (30 cm × 20 cm, 30 cm × 30 cm, 45 cm × 20 cm and 45 cm × 30 cm) and sub-plot treatments included six bio-fertilizer based nutritional trials (100% NPK (recommended dose: 60:30:45 kg/ha) 75% N + PK + Azotobacter (Azoto), 100% N + PK + Azoto, 75% N + PK + Azospirillum (Azosp), 100% N + PK + Azosp; and control (no fertilizers). The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications and 24 treatment combinations. Significantly, higher spread was recorded in the spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, over other spacing levels, at 60 and 90 DAP. However, the spacing of 30 cm × 20 cm, 45 × 20 cm and 45 × 30 cm recorded comparable plant spread at 30 DAP. The spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm recorded significantly higher number of leaves, than other spacing levels, at 30, 60 and 90 DAP. Nitrogen and phosphorus (P) content did not differed significantly due to spacing levels during both the years of experimentation. Significantly higher potash content of 1.36% was recorded in the spacing of 45 cm × 30 cm. Higher plant height, plant spread(24.06 cm2/plant), more number of leaves and number of branches were recorded in the treatment that received 100% N + PK + Azotobacter and 100% N + PK + Azospirillum at all the growth stages. Higher nitrogen content was recorded in the treatment that received 100% N + PK + Azotobacter (1.56%) than other treatments. Significantly, higher phosphorous content was recorded in the treatment that receives 100% N + PK + Azotobacter (0.074%) and higher potash content (1.42%) than other treatments. Significantly, higher N content of 1.64% and K content of 1.49% was recorded in the treatment combination 30 cm × 20 cm with 100% N + PK + Azotobacter than other treatment combinations.


Premi O.P.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Kandpal B.K.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Kumar S.,Ch Chhotu Ram Pg College | Rathore S.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | And 2 more authors.
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2012

Efficient use of soil and applied phosphorus is key to sustainable production of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) in calcareous semi-arid tracks of Indian sub-continent. And suitable P application strategy and use of phosphorus solubilizing and mobilizing micro-organism (PSMM) could enhance the P use efficiency and thereby productivity of Indian mustard. Thus, an experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to test some of these measures under irrigated fallow-mustard system. The seed yield of Indian mustard was increased by 5.5 % due to PSB inoculation and 10.8 % due to PSB + VAM over noninoculation. However, the incorporation of VAM alone showed antagonistic results. Similarly the basal application of 17.6 kg P/ha significantly increased the yield by 14.0 % over no-P fertilizer. The splitting of P levels to 15.4 kg P/ha basal + 2.2 kg P/ha foliar spray at 35 DAS further improved the seed yield by 26.9 % over basal application of P and 44.7 % over no-P. The interaction effect between PSMM and P application strategies was additive. The combined use of PSB + VAM and 15.4 kg P/ha basal + 2.2 kg P/ha foliar spray at 35 DAS increased the seed yield by 61.9 % over absolute control. These variations in yields were attributed to corresponding variation in primary and secondary branches, siliquae per plant, siliqua length, seeds per siliqua and 1000-seed weight. The total P uptake in Indian mustard varied from 6.1 at absolute control to 15.9 kgP/hawhen PSB + VAM and split P fertilizer were put together. But irrespective of the quantum of total uptake the share of P in seed varied a narrow range of 80.3-86.0 %. It was further confirmed by decreasing P harvest index with improvement in treatment, indicating accumulation of excess P in straw. The agronomic P efficiency (AEP) of applied P ranged between 14.5 kg seed/kg P fertilizer at 17.6 kg P/ha basal application to 37.7 kg seed/kg P at 15.4 kg P/ha basal + 2.2 kg P/ha foliar spray at 35 DAS. The corresponding increase in apparent recovery efficiency (REP) was 21.9-45.7 %. A synergistic effect of PSB and PSB + VAM and antagonistic effect of VAM was observed in AEP and RE P at both P fertilization levels. © The National Academy of Sciences, India 2012.

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