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Jones P.G.,Waen Associates | Thornton P.K.,CGIAR Program on Climate Change
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2015

Agricultural modellers often need detailed soil profile data with which to run their models. We combine an extensive soil profile database with the Harmonized World Soil Database, a 30. arcsecond raster database of soil information worldwide, and describe a statistical process to identify representative soil profiles for each of its 188 distinct soil types at different spatial resolutions. We then outline a method to cluster the soils in the Harmonized World Soil Database to produce soil maps at coarser resolution, and we describe derived global soil maps at spatial resolutions of 5 and 10. arcmin, which may be more practical for some large-scale modelling studies. The derived data files allow a user to select any point or area on land and then to access the set of soil profiles pertaining to the mapping unit selected, which are available in a format suitable for use in modelling applications. In situations where the user has little or no other information about the soils in the region of study, the methods described can be used to produce plausible soil profile information based on the most up-to-date global soil map currently available. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Rufino M.C.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Thornton P.K.,CGIAR Program on Climate Change | Ng'ang'a S.K.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Mutie I.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

Climate-induced livelihood transitions in the agricultural systems of Africa are increasingly likely. There is limited evidence on what such transitions might look like. We carried out fieldwork in 12 sites in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda to understand changes in farming systems in the recent past, and to test the hypothesis that sedentary farmers in zones that may become warmer and drier in the future may be forced to increase their reliance on livestock vis-à-vis cropping in the future. We estimated the contribution of crop and livestock activities to incomes, food security and poverty. Householders were asked how to adapt farming in the future. We found no direct evidence for the hypothesised extensification of production across study sites. Human diets have changed considerably in the last 40 years, as cropping has been taken up by increasing numbers of pastoral households, even in marginal places. Maize and legumes predominate, but some householders are increasing their crop and diet diversity, particularly in locations with annual rainfall higher than 800. mm. At all sites people want more livestock. Food insecurity is common at all sites with an annual rainfall of 800. mm or less, and critical levels are seen at sites with <700. mm. Households are self-sufficient in securing adequate dietary energy from food production in 7 of the 12 sites, all with rainfall higher than 800. mm. Although many householders have some knowledge about drought-tolerant crops, few cultivate millet, sorghum and cassava. Policies aimed at increasing the consumption of cassava, sorghum, millet and pigeon pea could be highly beneficial for future food security in the region. Vulnerability in the drier locations is already high, and policies should support safety nets and market and infrastructural development. Households in the wetter areas need to manage risk and to increase crop productivity. A critical requirement is knowledge transfer concerning the growing and utilisation of unfamiliar and untraditional crops. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Ojha H.R.,University of New South Wales | Sulaiman V R.,Center for Research on Innovation and Science Policy | Sultana P.,Flood Hazard Research Center | Dahal K.,Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science | And 6 more authors.
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems | Year: 2014

Despite growing scientific consensus that agriculture is affected by climate change and variability, there is still limited knowledge on how agricultural systems respond to climate risks under different circumstances. Drawing on three case studies conducted in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, covering Nepal, Bangladesh, and the Indian state of Punjab, this article analyzes agricultural adaptation practices to climate change. In particular, we examine how farmers and other agricultural actors understand and respond to climate change. We identify a variety of adaptation practices related to changes in cropping system, technological innovations, and institutional changes. We also explore key challenges related to such emerging adaptive innovation processes in the region. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Jarvis A.,Aereo | Lau C.,Aereo | Cook S.,CGIAR Program on Climate Change | Wollenberg E.,CGIAR Program on Climate Change | And 6 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2011

Global food security is under threat by climate change, and the impacts fall disproportionately on resource-poor small producers. With the goal of making agricultural and food systems more climate-resilient, this paper presents an adaptation and mitigation framework. A road map for further agricultural research is proposed, based on the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. We propose a holistic, integrated approach that takes into account trade-offs and feedbacks between interventions. We divide the agenda into four research areas, three tackling risk management, accelerated adaptation and emissions mitigation, and the fourth facilitating adoption of research outputs. After reviewing specific technical, agronomic and policy options for reducing climate change vulnerability, we acknowledge that science and good-faith recommendations do not necessarily translate into effective and timely actions. We therefore outline impediments to behavioural change and propose that future research overcomes these obstacles by linking the right institutions, instruments and scientific outputs. Food security research must go beyond its focus on production to also examine food access and utilization issues. Finally, we conclude that urgent action is needed despite the uncertainties, trade-offs and challenges. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source

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