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Liu L.,Genentech | Halladay J.S.,Genentech | Shin Y.,Genentech | Wong S.,Genentech | And 18 more authors.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2011

(R)-N-(3-(6-(4-(1,4-Dimethyl-3-oxopiperazin-2-yl)phenylamino)-4- methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrazin-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (GDC-0834) is a potent and selective inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), investigated as a potential treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro metabolite identification studies in hepatocytes revealed predominantformation of an inactive metabolite (M1) via amide hydrolysisin human. The formation of M1 appeared to be NADPHindependent in human liver microsomes. M1 was found in only minor to moderate quantities in plasma from preclinical species dosed with GDC-0834. Human clearance predictions using various methodologies resulted in estimates ranging from low to high. In addition, GDC-0834 exhibited low clearance in PXB chimeric mice with humanized liver. Uncertainty in human pharmacokinetic predictionand high interest in a BTK inhibitor for clinical evaluation prompted an investigational new drug strategy, in which GDC-0834 was rapidly advanced to a single-dose human clinical trial. GDC-0834 plasma concentrations in humans were below the limit of quantitation (<1 ng/ml) in most samples from the cohorts dosed orally at 35 and 105 mg. In contrast, substantial plasma concentrations of M1 were observed. In human plasma and urine, only M1 and its sequential metabolites were identified. The formation kinetics of M1 was evaluated in rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes in the absence of NADPH. The maximum rate of M1 formation (V max) was substantially higher in human compared with that in other species. In contrast, the Michaelis-Menten constant (K m) was comparable among species. Intrinsic clearance (V max/K m) of GDC-0834 from M1 formation in human was 23- to 169-fold higher than observed in rat, dog, and monkey. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Liu L.,Genentech | Di Paolo J.,CGI Pharmaceuticals | Di Paolo J.,Gilead Sciences | Barbosa J.,CGI Pharmaceuticals | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays a critical role in the development, differentiation, and proliferation of B-lineage cells, making it an attractive target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiarthritis effect of GDC-0834 [R-N-(3-(6-(4-(1,4- dimethyl-3-oxopiperazin-2-yl)phenylamino)-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrazin-2- yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide], a potent and selective BTK inhibitor, and characterize the relationship between inhibition of BTK phosphorylation (pBTK) and efficacy. GDC-0834 inhibited BTK with an in vitro IC50 of 5.9 and 6.4 nM in biochemical and cellular assays, respectively, and in vivo IC50 of 1.1 and 5.6 μM in mouse and rat, respectively. Administration of GDC-0834 (30-100 mg/kg) in a rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of ankle swelling and reduction of morphologic pathology. An integrated disease progression pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model where efficacy is driven by pBTK inhibition was fit to ankle-diameter time-course data. This model incorporated a transit model to characterize nondrug-related decreases in ankle swelling occurring at later stages of disease progression in CIA rats. The time course of ankle swelling in vehicle animals was described well by the base model. Simultaneous fitting of data from vehicle- and GDC-0834-treated groups showed that overall 73% inhibition of pBTK was needed to decrease the rate constant describing the ankle swelling increase (kin) by half. These findings suggest a high degree of pBTK inhibition is required for maximal activity of the pathway on inflammatory arthritis in rats. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Di Paolo J.A.,CGI Pharmaceuticals | Di Paolo J.A.,Gilead Sciences | Di Paolo J.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Huang T.,Genentech | And 51 more authors.
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2011

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation. CGI1746 has exquisite selectivity for Btk and inhibits both auto- and transphosphorylation steps necessary for enzyme activation. Using CGI1746, we demonstrate that Btk regulates inflammatory arthritis by two distinct mechanisms. CGI1746 blocks B cell receptor-dependent B cell proliferation and in prophylactic regimens reduces autoantibody levels in collagen-induced arthritis. In macrophages, Btk inhibition abolishes FcγRIII-induced TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 production. Accordingly, in myeloid- and FcγR-dependent autoantibody-induced arthritis, CGI1746 decreases cytokine levels within joints and ameliorates disease. These results provide new understanding of the function of Btk in both B cell- or myeloid cell-driven disease processes and provide a compelling rationale for targeting Btk in rheumatoid arthritis. © Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

PubMed | St. Andrews Circle, CGI Pharmaceuticals and Genentech
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2015

SAR studies focused on improving the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the previously reported potent and selective Btk inhibitor CGI-1746 (1) resulted in the clinical candidate GDC-0834 (2), which retained the potency and selectivity of CGI-1746, but with much improved PK in preclinical animal models. Structure based design efforts drove this work as modifications to 1 were investigated at both the solvent exposed region as well as H3 binding pocket. However, in vitro metabolic evaluation of 2 revealed a non CYP-mediated metabolic process that was more prevalent in human than preclinical species (mouse, rat, dog, cyno), leading to a high-level of uncertainly in predicting human pharmacokinetics. Due to its promising potency, selectivity, and preclinical efficacy, a single dose IND was filed and 2 was taken in to a single dose phase I trial in healthy volunteers to quickly evaluate the human pharmacokinetics. In human, 2 was found to be highly labile at the exo-cyclic amide bond that links the tetrahydrobenzothiophene moiety to the central aniline ring, resulting in insufficient parent drug exposure. This information informed the back-up program and discovery of improved inhibitors.

Regberg T.,Karolinska Institutet | Lindquist C.,University of Stockholm | Pilotti A.,University of Stockholm | Ellstrom C.,Biotage AB | And 5 more authors.
Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening | Year: 2011

Spatially addressable combinatorial libraries were synthesized by solution phase chemistry and screened for binding to human serum albumin. Members of arylidene diamide libraries were among the best hits found, having submicromolar binding affinities. The results were analyzed by the frequency with which particular substituents appeared among the most potent compounds. After immobilization of the ligands either through the oxazolone or the amine substituent, characterization by surface plasmon resonance showed that ibuprofen affected the binding kinetics, but phenylbutazone did not. It is therefore likely that these compounds bind to Site 2 in sub domain IIIA of human serum albumin (HSA). © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

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