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Rana A.M.,Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat | Desai K.R.,Cg Bhakta Institute Of Biotechnology | Jauhari S.,Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat
Research on Chemical Intermediates | Year: 2014

To investigate the antimicrobial properties of the rhodanine (2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone) structure, several 2-[(5Z)-5-benzylidene-4-oxo-2- thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]-N-phenylacetamide derivatives were synthesized by use of an efficient procedure. Variation of the functional group on the 5-benzylidine ring of rhodanine led to compounds containing a 2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone group attached to N-phenyl acetamide. The chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the compounds were tested, at seven concentrations, against Gram-positive bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922), Gram-negative bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774), and fungal strains (Candida albicans ATCC 66027 and Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275), by use of the Kirby Bauer disk-diffusion technique and the serial broth dilution technique. The results obtained were compared with those for reference drugs. Relationships between structure and their antimicrobial activity are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Selvapandiyan A.,Institute of Molecular Medicine | Dey R.,CBER | Gannavaram S.,CBER | Solanki S.,Institute of Molecular Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if not treated and is prevalent widely in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of world. VL is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani or Leishmania infantum. Although several second generation vaccines have been licensed to protect dogs against VL, there are no effective vaccines against human VL [1]. Since people cured of leishmaniasis develop lifelong protection, development of live attenuated Leishmania parasites as vaccines, which can have controlled infection, may be a close surrogate to leishmanization. This can be achieved by deletion of genes involved in the regulation of growth and/or virulence of the parasite. Such mutant parasites generally do not revert to virulence in animal models even under conditions of induced immune suppression due to complete deletion of the essential gene(s). In the Leishmania life cycle, the intracellular amastigote form is the virulent form and causes disease in the mammalian hosts. We developed centrin gene deleted L. donovani parasites that displayed attenuated growth only in the amastigote stage and were found safe and efficacious against virulent challenge in the experimental animal models. Thus, targeting genes differentially expressed in the amastigote stage would potentially attenuate only the amastigote stage and hence controlled infectivity may be effective in developing immunity. This review lays out the strategies for attenuation of the growth of the amastigote form of Leishmania for use as live vaccine against leishmaniasis, with a focus on visceral leishmaniasis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Desai K.G.,Macleods Pharmaceuticals Ltd | Naik J.I.,West Corporation | Raval J.P.,Ashok and Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied science | Desai K.R.,Cg Bhakta Institute Of Biotechnology
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

Heterocyclic compounds containing pyrazolines were reported to possess significant biological activity. Synthesis of 2-(ω-chloroacetonyl)-3-p-fluorophenyl-6-bromoquinazoline-4(3H)-ones (2), 2-(ω-hydrazinoacetonyl)-3-p-fluorophenyl-6-bromoquinazoline-4(3H)-ones (3) and 1'-[3H-3-p-fluorophenyl-4-oxo-6-bromoquinazoline-2-acetonyl]-3'-[1-o-chlorophenyl-3-methyl-5-azomethine-2-pyrazolidene]-5'-(substituted phenyl)-δ2-pyrazolines (4a-j) have been described. Some of the new compounds were tested against bacteria (Gram -ve and Gram +ve) and fungi. © 2011. Source

Patel M.,Cg Bhakta Institute Of Biotechnology | Baxi K.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | Dayma P.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | Upadhyay D.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2014

The present work aimed to make an assessment of physicochemical parameters and bacteriological contamination associated with 24 ground water resources used by more than 5% of total population, classified under four characteristic locations of Bhavnagar, a growing city of Gujarat. Ground water quality was evaluated with respect to most probable number of Escherichia coli, and presence of heterotrophic bacteria including some pathogens. Based on morphological differences and sites, 27 isolates were randomly selected and identified accurately. Scanning electron microscopy was also performed for each representative genus to understand morphology. Resources from thickly crowded areas were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter, residential area by Citrobacter and Serratia and sites adjacent to drainage canals by Pseudomonas spp. Further, bacterial community structure of 24 different resources was determined by Biolog EcoPlates™ and species richness and diversity were evaluated. Antibiotic resistance pattern revealed emergence of multidrug resistance among some of the identified strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed bacteriological analysis of ground water resources of Bhavnagar city including bacterial identification using polyphasic approach, community study, antibiotics resistance profiling, and interpretation of data using suitable statistical tools. Furthermore, this study can be considered as a model for understanding ground water quality of other cities also. Groundwater quality of Bhavnagar, India was evaluated with respect to bacterial contamination. Resources from thickly crowded areas were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter, residential area by Citrobacter and Serratia, and sites adjacent to drainage canals by Pseudomonas spp. Antibiotic resistance pattern revealed presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Lokhandwala S.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Desai K.R.,Cg Bhakta Institute Of Biotechnology
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

A new family of organophosphorus compounds namely 3-chloro-1-(10-hydroxy- 10-oxo-5,10-dihydro-phenophosphazin-2-yl)-4-(substituted phenyl)-azetidin-2-one (3a-j) has been synthesized by reaction of 2-[(substituted benzylidene)-amino]- 10-oxo-5,10-dihydro-phenophosphazin-10-ol (2a-j) with chloro acetyl chloride and triethyl amine. All these compounds were characterized by elemental and spectral analysis. Their antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Asian Journal of Chemistry. Source

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